Infection Control Today

August 2001

Cleaning: An Important Prerequisite for Instrument Sterilization and Disinfection
By: Nancy S. Chu, MS, and Martin Favero, PhD

1. Association for Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI). Standards and recommended practices. Sterilization, Part 1. Sterilization of health care facilities. Sterilization Part 2. Hospital equipment and industrial process control. Arlington, VA: AAMI, 1995.

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3. Chan-Myers H, McAlister D, Antonoplos, PA. Natural bioburden levels detected on rigid lumened medical devices before and after cleaning. Am J Infect Control 1997;25:471-6.

4. Chu NS, McAlister D, Antonoplos, PA. Natural bioburden levels detected on flexible gastrointestinal endoscopes after clinical use and manual cleaning. Gastrointest Endosc 1998;48:137-42.

5. Chu NS, Chan-Myers H, Ghazanfari N, et al. Levels of naturally occurring microorganisms on surgical instruments after clinical use and after washing. Am J Infect Control 1999;27:315-9.

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7. Rutala WA, Gergen MF, Jones JF, et al. Levels of microbial contamination on surgical instruments. Am J Infect Control 1999;26:143-145.

8. Vesley D, Melson J, Stanley P. Microbial burden in endoscope reprocessing and in-use evaluation of the high-level disinfection capabilities of Cidex PA. Gastroenterology Nursing 1999;22:63-68.

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12. Kaiser HJ, McDonnell GE, Tirey JF et al. Water Quality and Reprocessing Instruments). Infect Control Today May 2000.

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14. Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation Technical Information Report AAMI TIR No. 12 - 1994 Designing, Testing, and Labeling Reusable Medical Devices for Reprocessing in Health Care Facilities: A Guide for Device Manufacturers.

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20. Alfa MJ, DeGagne P, Olson N et al. Comparison of ion plasma, vaporized hydrogen peroxide, and 100% ethylene oxide sterilizers to the 12/88 ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1996;17:92-100.

21. Jacobs PT, Wang JH, Gorham RA, et al. Cleaning: principles, methods and benefits. In: Rutala WA (ed). Disinfection, sterilization and antisepsis in health care. Association For Professionals In Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc., Washington DC 1998:165-81.

22. Chu NS, Chan-Myers H. Evaluation of enzymatic and conventional detergent cleaners for removing organic material from instruments prior to sterilization or disinfection. In: American Society for Microbiology 2001 Abstracts.

Think Safety When Choosing the Proper Disinfectant or Sterilant
By: Bill Feil

1. Spaulding EH. Chemcial disinfection of medical and surgical instruments. In: Lawrence CA. Block SS, eds. Disinfection, sterilization and preservation. Philidelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1968:517-31.

2. Garner JS, Favero MS. Guideline for handwashing and hospital environmental control, 1985. AJIC Am J Infect Control 1986;14:110-126.

3. Rutala WA. APIC guideline for selection and use of disinfectants. AJIC Am J Infect Control 1996:24:313-342.

4. Favero MS, Bond WW. Chemical disinfection of medical and surgical materials. In: Block SS, ed. Disinfection, sterilization, and preservation. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2001:881-917.

5. Ellis MR, Buck KM. Antimicrobial product labels and regulations. Infection Control Today, 2001: 3, 16-18.

6. Rutula WA, Weber DJ. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1997:18:609-616.

7. Noskin GA, et al. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1995:16:577-581.

8. Boyce JB, et al. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1997:18:622-627.

9. Bonilla HF, et al. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1996:17:771.

Assessing the Risk of Creutsfeldt-Jakob Disease
By: Lawrence F. Muscarella, Ph.D.

Steelman VM. Prion diseases--an evidence-based protocol for infection control. AORN J 1999 May;69(5):946-54, 956-67 passim; quiz 968-76. Review

Diringer H. Proposed link between transmissible spongiform encephalopathies of man and animals. Lancet 1995 Nov 4;346(8984):1208-10. Review.

Pablos-Mendez A, Netto EM, Defendini R. Infectious prions or cytotoxic metabolites? Lancet 1993 Jan 16;341(8838):159-61. Review.

Prusiner SB, Hsiao KK. Human prion diseases. Ann Neurol 1994 Apr;35(4):385-95. Review.

Will RG. Gene influences on Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Lancet 1994 Nov 12;344(8933):1310-1.

Bernoulli C, Siegfried J, Baumgartner G, et al. Danger of accidental person-to-person transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease by surgery. Lancet 1977 Feb 26;1(8009):478-9.

Gibbs CJ Jr, Asher DM, Kobrine A, Amyx HL, Sulima MP, Gajdusek DC. Transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease to a chimpanzee by electrodes contaminated during neurosurgery. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1994 Jun;57(6):757-8.

http://www.cjdsupport.org.au/who_infection_control_guidelines.htm

http://cdc.gov/ncidod/hip/sterile/cjd.htm

Muscarella LF. Biopsy forceps: Disposable or reusable? Gastroenterol Nurs 2001;24(2):64-68.

Personal Protective Equipment: Achieving Compliance or Encountering Resistance
By: Karen A. Huggins, MN, RN, CNOR

1. Rogers, B. Health hazards in nursing and health care: An overview, American Journal of infection Control, June 1997, Vol. 25 (3): 248-61.

2. Telford, GL and Quebbeman, EJ, Assessing the risk of blood exposure in the operating room, American Journal of Infection Control, December 1993, Vol. 21:6, 351-356.

3. Jagger, J, Bentley, M and Tereskerz, P. A Study of pattern and prevention of Blood exposures in OR Personnel, AORN Journal, May 1998, Vol. 67 (5): 979-996.

4. Experts discuss ways to gear up for OR safety, Materials Management, September 1993,

5. p 30.

6. Jagger, J, Bentley, M and Tereskerz, P. A Study of pattern and prevention of Blood exposures in OR Personnel, AORN Journal, May 1998, Vol. 67 (5): 979-996.

7. Telford, GL and Quebbeman, EJ, Assessing the risk of blood exposure in the operating room, American Journal of Infection Control, December 1993, Vol. 21:6, 351-356.

8. Jagger, J, Bentley, M and Tereskerz, P. A Study of pattern and prevention of Blood exposures in OR Personnel, AORN Journal, May 1998, Vol. 67 (5): 979-996

9. Rogers, B. Health hazards in nursing and health care: An overview, American Journal of infection Control, June 1997, Vol. 25 (3): 248-61.

10. Fecteau, DL, Practical considerations in Purchasing New Products, Surgical Clinics of North America, December 1995, Vol. 75 (6): 1167-1173.

11. IBID.

12. IBID.

13. Jagger, J, Bentley, M and Tereskerz, P. A Study of pattern and prevention of Blood exposures in OR Personnel, AORN Journal, May 1998, Vol. 67 (5): 979-996.

14. IBID.

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: Risks and Prevention of Nosocomial Acquisition
By: William A. Rutala, PhD, MPH, and David J. Weber, MD, MPH

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5. Collinge J. Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Lancet 1999;354:317-323.

6. World Health Organization. Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). Fact sheet, revised June 2001. http://www.who.int/imf-fs/en/fact180.html.

7. Brown P. Will RG, Bradley R, Asher DM, Detwiler L. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: Background, evolution, and current concerns. Emerg Infect Dis 2001;7:1-16.

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9. Rutala WA, Weber DJ. Management of equipment contaminated with the Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent. In: Disinfection, Sterilization and Antisepsis. WA Rutala (ed.). Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Washington, D.C., 2001.

10. Rutala WA, Weber DJ. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: Recommendations for disinfection and sterilization. Clin Infect Dis 2001;32:1348-1356.

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12. Tyler KL. Prions and prion diseases of the central nervous system (Transmissible neurodegenerative diseases). In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. Principles and Practices of Infectious Diseases, 5th ed. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone; 2000:1971-1985.

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14. Steelman VM. Prion diseases - An evidence-based protocol for infection control. AORN J 1999;69:946-967.

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32. Evatt B, Austin H, Barnhart E, et al. Surveillance for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease among persons with hemophilia. Transfusion 1998;38:817-820.

33. Lee CA, Ironside JW, Bell JE et al. Retrospective neuropathological review of prion disease in UK haemophilic patients. Thrombosis Haemostasis 1998;80:909-911.

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