Infection Control Today

June 2001

Sterilization A to Z
By: Doug Harbrecht

  1. ANSI/AAMI/ISO 11135-1994 Medical devices - Validation and Routine Control of ethylene oxide sterilization.
  2. EN 550:1994 - Sterilization of Medical Devices- Validation and routine control of ethylene oxide sterilization.
  3. ANSI/AAMI/ISO 10993-7:1995 Biological evaluation of medical devices - Part 7 Ethylene oxide residuals.
  4. ANSI/AAMI/ISO 11134-1993 Sterilizatoin of health care products - Requirements for validation and routine control - Industrial moist heat sterilization.
  5. ANSI/AAMI/ISO 11137-1994 Sterilization of health care products - Requirements for validation and routine control - Radiation sterilization.
  6. ANSI/AAMI/ISO 11737-1-1995 Sterilization of medical devices - Microbiological methods-Part 1: Estimation of population of microorganisms on products.
  7. ANSI/AAMI/ISO 11737-2-1998 Sterilization of medical devices - Microbiological methods-Part 2: Test of sterility performed in the validation of a sterilization process.
  8. ANSI/AAMI/ISO 11607-1997 Packaging for terminally sterilized medical devices.
  9. AAMI TIR No. 7-1990 Chemical Sterilants and Sterilization Methods: A Guide to Selection and Use.
  10. AAMI TIR No. 8-1991 Microbiological Methods for Gamma Irradiation Sterilization of Medical Devices.
  11. AAMI TIR No. 12-1994 Designing, Testing, and Labeling Reusable Medical Devices for Reprocessing in Health Care Facilities:m A Guide for Medical Device Manufacturers.
  12. AAMI TIR No. 13-1997 Principles of Industrial Moist Heat Sterilization
  13. AAMI TIR No. 15-1997 Ethylene Oxide Sterilization Equipment, Process Considerations, and Pertinent Calculations.
  14. AAMI TIR No. 16-1998 Process development and performance qualification for ethylene oxide sterilization - Microbiological aspects.
  15. AAMI TIR No. 17-1997 Radiation Sterilization - Material qualification.
  16. AAMI TIR No. 19-1998 Guidance for ANSI/AAMI/ISO 10993-7:1995, Biological evaluation of medical devices - Part 7 Ethylene oxide residuals.
  17. AAMI TIR No. 22-1998 Guidance for ANSI/AAMI/ISO 11607-1997 Packaging for terminally sterilized medical devices.
  18. Block, S.S., (ed), Disinfection, Sterilization, and Preservation, 4th edition, Lea & Febiger, 1991.
  19. Booth, A. F, "Industrial Sterilization Technologies," Med Dev Diag Indust, 17(2):64-72, 1995.

Preventing Intraveneous Catheter-Associated Infections: An Update
By Marlene Welman Schimd

  1. Robins, J. (1997). An admission of death. (Hospital-acquired infections). New Statesman, Sept 26. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0FQP/n4353_v126/20038959/print.jhtml
  2. Fatality Analysis Reporting System. (2001). http://www-fars.mhtsa.dot.gov.
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2000). Monitoring hospital-acquired infections to promote patient safety - United Sates, 1990-1999. MMWR Mortality Weekly Report. 49(9):189.
  4. Kohn, L. Corrigan, J., Donaldson, M. (1999). To err is human: building a safer health system. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine, National Academy Press.
  5. Mermel, L.A. (1996). Bacteriology, safety and prevention of infection associated with continuous intravenous infusions. Blood Coagulapathy Fibrinolysis (Suppl 1), S45-51.
  6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2000). Monitoring hospital-acquired infections to promote patient safety - United Sates, 1990-1999. MMWR Mortality Weekly Report. 49(8);149-153.
  7. Widmer, A. (1997). Intravenous-Related Infections. In RP Wenzel (ed.) Prevention and Control of Nosocomial Infections. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Williams. 771-805.
  8. Abramson, J.H. and Abramson, Z.H. (1999). Survey Methods in Community Medicine. (5th ed.) New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone.
  9. Pelletier, S.J., Crabtree, T.D., Gleason, T.G. & Sawyer, R.G. (2000). Bacteremia associated with central venous catheter infection is not an independent predictor of outcomes. Journal of the American College of Surgeons, 190 (6), 671-680.
  10. Marik, P.E., (2000). Fever in the ICU. Chest. 3 http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0984/3-117/61635221/print.jhtml.
  11. Barbone, M.(1999). A tip of the cap to intermittent infusions. Nursing, Feb. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m3231/2_29/529968/print.jhtml
  12. Valanis, B.(1986). Epidemiology in Nursing and Health Care. East Norwalk, CT: Appleton-Centry-Crofts.
  13. Maki, D.G., Weise, C.E., Sarafin, H.W. (1977) A semiquantiatative culture method for identifying intravenous-catheter-related infection. New England Journal of Medicine. 296;1305-1309.
  14. Maki, D.G. (1992). Infection due to infusion therapy. In Bennett, J.V., Brachman, P.S. (eds.): Hospital Infections (3rd ed.). Boston: Little, Brown.
  15. Anderson, K., Anderson, L., & Glanze, W. (1998). Mosbys Medical, Nursing & Allied Health Dictionary (5th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
  16. Mermel, L.A. (1996). Bacteriology, safety and prevention of infection associated withcontinuous intravenous infusions. Blood Coagulapathy Fibrinolysis (Suppl 1), S45-51.
  17. Mermel. L.A. (2000). APIC Text of Infection Control and Epidemiology.Intravascular Device Infections. Washington, DC: Association for Practitioners in Infection Control, Inc. 30-1 - 30-8.
  18. Darouiche, R., Raad, I. & Heard, S.O. et al. (1999). A comparison of two antimicrobial-impregnated central venous catheters. New England Journal of Medicine, 340, p. 1-8.
  19. Maki, D.G. (1989). The use of antiseptics for handwashing by medical personnel. Journal of Chemotherapy, (Suppl 1),3.
  20. Mimoz, O., Pieroni, L. &Lawrence, et al., (1996). Prospective, randomized trial of two antiseptic solutions for prevention of central venous or arterial catheter colonization and infection in intensive care unit patients. Critical Care Medicine, 24, p.1818-1823.
  21. Tacconelli, E., Tumbarello, M. & Pittiruti, et al., (1997). Central venous ctheter-related sepsis in a cohort of 366 hospitalized patients. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Diseases. 340, p. 48-49
  22. Wenzel, R.P.& Edmond, M.B. (1991). The evolving technology of venous assess. New England Journal Medicine, 340, p. 48-49.
  23. Brown, D.F. and Warren, R.E. (1990). Effect of sample volume on yield of positive blood cultures from adult patients with hematological malignancy. Journal of Clinical Pathology : 43:777-779.
  24. Bjornson, H.S. (1993). Pathogenesis, prevention, and management of catheter-associated infections. New Horizons, 1 (2), p. 271-278.
  25. Beck-Sague, C.M., Jarvis, W.R. (1993). Secular trends in the epidemiology of nosocomial fungal infections in the United States, 1980-1990. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 167, 1247-1251.
  26. National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (NNIS) system report, data summary from October 1986-April 1998, issued June 1998. American Journal Infection control, 272, p. 522-533.
  27. Banerjee, S.M. et.al. (1991). Secular trends in nosocomial primary bloodstream infections in the United States. American Journal of Medicine. 91(Suppl 3B), 86S.
  28. Schalberg, D.R., Culver, D.H., & Gaynes, R.P. (1991). Major trends in the microbial etiology of nosocomial infections. American Journal of Medicine (suppl 3B), B72S-75S.
  29. Weinstein, S.M. (1997). Plumers Principles & Practice of Intravenous Therapy, (6th ed.). Philidelphia, PA: Lippincott. 84-109.
  30. Life Sciences Pharmeceuticals. (2000). Microbiological monitoring of the cleanroom laundry. The Journal of Advancing Applications in Contamination Control. 3(3), 13-16.
  31. Dunne, W.M. (1994). Mechanisms of Infectious Disease; In Porth, C.M., Pathophysiology: Concepts of Altered Health States. (4th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: J.B. Lippincott Company, pp. 221-241.
  32. Amdur, M. O. (1973). Industrial Toxicology in NIOSH of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, The Industrial Environment - Its Evaluation & Control. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. 61-73.
  33. Lawlor, G.J., Jr., Fischer, T.J. and Adelman, D.C. (1995). Manual of Allergy and Immunology. Boston, MA: Little, Brown, and Co. see Robinson, R. reference at http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/g2601/0000/2601000045/p1/article.jhtml?term=%22Allergic+rhinitis%22
  34. Vendor Booth. (1995). At the Association for Practitioners in Infection Control (1995). 22th Annual Educational Conference and International Meeting, May, 1995 .
  35. Phillips, L. D. (1997). Manual of I.V. Therapeutics. (2nd ed). Philadelphia: F.A. Davis. 156-173.
  36. Smith-Temple, J. & Johnson, J.Y. (1998). Nurses Guide to Clinical Procedures. (3rd. ed). Philadelphia, P.A.: Lippincott. 172-231.
  37. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (November 5, 1999). Enforcement procedures for the occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens. OSHA Instruction , CPL2-2.44D, in Code of Federal Register 29, Part 1910. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor. 1-68. See also: Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogen Injuries; Final Rule. - 66:5317-5325 effective April 18, 2001at: http://www.osha-slc.gov/FedReg_osha_date/FED20010118A.html
  38. Sitges-Serra, A. (1999). Strategies for prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infections. Support Care Cancer, 7 (6), p.391-395.
  39. Abrams, G.D. (1992). Response of the Body to infectious agents. In S.A. Price and L.M. Wilson (eds.) Pathophysiology: Clinical Concepts and Disease Process (4th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby. pp 64-71.
  40. Jorgensen, J.H.& Rinaldi, M.G.(1986). A Clinicians Dictionary of Bacteria and Fungi. Indianapolis, IN: Eli Lilly and Company.
  41. Maki, D.G., Goldman, D.A., & Rhama, F.S., (1973). Infection control in intravenous therapy. Annals of Internal Medicine, 79, 869-870, 872, 875-876, 878, 880.
  42. Walter, C.W. (1956). The aseptic treatment of wounds. New York: Macmillan.
  43. Intravenous Nurses Society. (2000). Infusion Nursing Standards of Practice. Journal of Intravenous Nursing. 23(6S); Infusion equipment #42 Tourniquet, p.S36; Site Selection and Device Placement S37, Catheter Placement, S42-S43; Standards: Nursing Practice, S5-S72.
  44. Sheff, B. (1998), VRE & MRSA: putting bad bugs out of business. Nursing. 3, http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m3231/n3_v28/20381218/print.jhtml. 1-6.
  45. Maki, D.G., Alvarado, C.J, & Ringer, M. (1991). A prospective, randomized trial of providone-iodine, alcohol, and chlorhexidine for prevention of infection with central venous and arterial catheters. Lancet, 3389-3399.
  46. Boyce, J.M. (1996). Preventing Staphyloccal infections by eradicating nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. 17 (12), http://www.slackinc.com/general/iche/stor1296/boyce.htm.
  47. Reed C.R., Sessler, C.N., Glauser, F.L. & Phelan, B.A. (1995). Central venous catheter infections: concepts and controversies. Intensive Care Medicine, 21 (2), p. 177-183.
  48. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (October 17, 1997). Occupational Exposure to Tuberculosis; Proposed Rule in Code of Federal Register 29, Part 1910. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor. 62:54159-54309. http://www.osha-slc.gov/FedReg_osha_data/FED19971017.html.

 

Working as a Perioperative Team
By: Ruth A. LeTexier

  1. Berry $ Kohns Operating Romm Technique, 9th edition (St. Louis: Mosby, 2000) 13.
  2. Murphy E. OR Nursing Law: Applications of the Captain of the Ship doctrine. AORN Journal October 1990; v52:863-6.
  3. Van Norman, Gail, MD Ehtics in Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine http://eduserv.hscer.washington.edu/bioethics/topic/team.html.
  4. Morrison, Janet L. Evolution of the perioperative clinical nurse specialist role. AORN Journal August 2000 v72 i2, 227.
  5. Berry $ Kohns Operating Romm Technique, 9th edition (St. Louis: Mosby, 2000) 13.
  6. Ulmer, Brenda C. Professional advocacy. AORN Journal July 200, v72:9
  7. Dawes, Brenda S. Gregory, Building Teams, Synergy, and Your Resources, AORN Journal 72 September 2000 372
  8. Van Norman, Gail, MD Ehtics in Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine http://eduserv.hscer.washington.edu/bioethics/topic/team.html.
  9. Maun, Clint Conflict Management: What Really Works? Surgical Services Management, June 200, V6 37-40.

Gluteraldehyde Safety
By: Phillip Coles

  1. ANSI/AAMI ST58-1996.
  2. Reprocessing of Flexible Gastrointestinal Endoscopes, December 1995.
  3. Advanced Sterilization Products. 1999. Directions for Use, Cidex OPA.
  4. Notarianni G. Logan Associates and Purdue/IAHCSMM: Glutaraldehyde Safety Action Plan.Self-Study Series:32.
  5. Teta, MJ, Avashia, BH, Cawley, TJ, Yamin, AL. 1995. Absences of Sensitizations and Cancer Increases Among Glutarldehyde Workers. Toxic Substance Mechanism. 14:293-305.

Best Practices
New Patient Safety Standards: Impact on Infection Control
By Pat Tydel

  1. Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. Sentinel Events: Evaluating Cause and Planning Improvement. JCAHO, 1998.
  2. National Center for Patient Safety. Patient Safety Handbook. 2000.
  3. Revisions to Joint Commission Standards in Support of Patient Safety and Medical/Health Care Error Reduction. Effective July 1, 2001. www.jcaho.org
  4. Inside the Joint Commission. Healthcare Accreditation Resource Center, February 19, 2001.
  5. McLaughlin, S. Codes + Standards Coming up in 2001. Health Facilities Management. November, 2000.
  6. Calloway, SD, JCAHOs patient safety and medical error reduction standards for hospitals. Conference, February, 2001.
  7. The National Academies. www.nationalacademies.org. Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century.
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