"Brushing the Surface of Disinfectants"
By Kelli M. Donley, page 20.
4. Smith, F. SciReg, Inc. Palmero Healthcare. 2001.
"Glove Standards Keep Evolving"
By Pamela Werner, page 22.
1. Groce, D. Safety assurance: how glove manufacturers standardize and maintain glove integrity. Infection Control Today. June 1999:50-56.
2. Tillotson, T. Glove regulations. Infection Control Today. Sept. 1999:30.
3. Korniewicz, D. Glove technology for a new millennium. Infection Control Today. Sept. 1999:20-28.
4. Fleming, P. A review of the FDA medical glove reclassification proposal. July 1999, Source To Surgery, April 2000 Vol. 8: 3.
5. Smith, L. Proposed FDA reclassification leads changes in glove market. Medical Products Sales.November 1999:33-34.
6. IMS American, Healthcare Division: Hospital Supply Index, Philadelphia, IMS America.
7. ASTM Standards 2000, www.astm.org.
8. Federal Register. Vol. 65, No. 221, Nov. 15, 2000, pp. 69022-69030.
"Maximizing Hand-Hygiene Compliance to Improve Outcomes: A New Tool for Infection Control"
By Eleanor J. Fendler, PhD, MD and Patricia A. Groziak, MS, page 40.
1. Jarvis, W.R. Selected aspects of the socioeconomic impact of nosocomial infections: morbidity, mortality, cost, and prevention. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1996;17: 552-557; 2000 CDC 4th Decennial International Conference on Nosocomial and Healthcare-associated Infections, March 5-9, 2000, Atlanta, GA.
2. Pittet, D.; Mourounga, P. and Perneger, T.V. Compliance with handwashing in a teaching hospital. Ann Intern Med. 1999;130:126-130.
3. Jackson, N.M.; Fierer, J.; Connor-Barrett, E.; Fraser, D.; Klauber, M.R. and Hatch, R., et al. Intensive surveillance for infections in the three year study of nursing home patients. Am J Epidemiol. 1992;135:685-696.
4. Jarvis, W.R. Handwashing - the Semmelweis lesson forgotten? Lancet. 1994; 344:1311-1312.
5. Meengs, M.R.; Giles, B.K. and Chisholm, C.D. Handwashing frequency in an emergency department. J Emerg Nurs. 1994;20:183-188.
6. Doebbeling, B.N.; Stanley, G.L. and Sheetz, C.I. Comparative efficacy of alternative hand-washing agents in reducing nosocomial infections in intensive care units. N Engl J Med. 1992;327:88-93.
7. Goldmann, D. and Larson, E. Hand-washing and nosocomial infections. N Engl J Med. 1992;327:120-122.
8. Bischoff, W.E.; Reynolds, T.M.; Sessler, C.N.; Edmond, M.B. and Wenzel, R.P. Handwashing compliance by health care workers. The impact of introducing an accessible, alcohol-based hand antiseptic. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160:1017-1021.
9. Larson, E. and Killien, M. Factors influencing handwashing behavior in patient care personnel. Am J Infect Control. 1982;10:93-99.
10. Zimakoff, J.; Kjelsbert, A.B. and Larsen, S.O. A multicenter questionnaire investigation of attitudes toward hand hygiene, assessed by the staff in 15 hospitals in Denmark and Norway. Am J Infect Control. 1992;20:58-64.
11. Voss, A. and Widmer, A.F. No time for handwashing? Handwashing versus alcoholic rub: Can we afford 100% compliance? Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol.1997;18:205-208.
12. Boyce, J.M.; Kellilher, S. and Vallande, N. Skin irritation and dryness associated with two hand hygiene regimens: soap and water hardwashing versus hand antisepsis with an alcoholic hand gel. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2000;21:442-448.
13. Pittet, D. Improving compliance with hand hygiene in hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2000;21:381-386.
14. Ojajrvi, J. Handwashing in Finland. J Hosp Infect. 1991;18 (Supplement B):35-40.
15. Zargosa, M.; SaliÈs, M.; Gomez, J.; Bayas, J.M. and Trilla, A. Handwashing with soap or alcoholic solutions? A randomized clinical trial of its effectiveness. Am J Infect Control. 1999;27:258-261.
16. Pittet, D.; Hugonnet, S.; Harbarth, P.; Mourouga, P.; Sauvan, V.; Touveneau, S. and Perneger, T.V. Effectiveness of a hospital-wide programme to improve compliance with hand hygiene. Lancet. 2000;356:1307-1312.
17. Larson, E. Skin hygiene and infection prevention: more of the same or different approaches? Clin Infect Dis. 1999;29:1287-1294.
18. Rotter, M.L. Hand washing and hand disinfection. In Mayhall CG, ed. Hospital Epidemiology and Infection Control. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore. 1996; Chapter 79:1052-1068.
19. Rotter, M.L. Alcohols for antisepsis of hands and skin. In Ascenzi JM, ed. Handbook of Disinfectants and Antiseptics. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York. 1996; Chapter 10:177-233.
20. Ali, Y.; Dolan, M.J.; Fendler, E.J. and Larson, E.L. Alcohols. In Block SS, ed. Sanitization, Disinfection and Sterilization. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia. 2001; Chapter 12:229-253.
21. Guilhermetti, M.; Hernandes, S.E.D.; Fukushigue, Y.; Garcia, L.B. and Cardoso, C.L. Effectiveness of hand-cleansing agents for removing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from contaminated hands. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2001;22:105-108.
22. McNeil, S.A.; Foster, C.L.; Hedderwick, S.A. and Kaufman, C.A. Effect of hand cleansing with antimicrobial soap or alcohol-based gel on microbial colonization of artificial fingernails worn by healthcare workers. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;32: 367-372.
23. Pereira, L.J.; Lee, G.M. and Wade, K.J. An evaluation of five protocols for surgical handwashing in relation to skin condition and microbial counts. J. Hosp Infection. 1997; 36: 49-65.
24. Gross, A.; Cutright, D.E and D'Alessandro, S.M. Effect of surgical scrub on microbial population under the fingernails. Am. J. Surg. 1979; 138: 463-465.
25. Mitchell, K.G. and Rawlulk, D.I.R. Skin reactions related to surgical scrub-up results of a Scottish survey. Br. J. Surg. 1964; 71: 223-224.
26. Mackintosh, C.A. and Hoffman, P.N. An extended model for transfer of micro-organisms via the hands: differences between organisms and the effect of alcohol disinfection. J. Hyg. Camb. 1984; 92: 345-355.
27. Nystrom, B. Scandinavian experience differs (letter). Infect. Control. 1984; 5: 211.
28. Larson, E.L.; Eke, P.I. and Laughon, B.E. Efficacy of alcohol-based hand rinses under frequent-use conditions. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1986; 30: 542-544.
29. Larson, E.L.; Eke, P.I.; Wilder, M.P. and Laughon, B.E. Quantity of soap as a variable in handwashing. Infect Control. 1987; 8: 271-375.
30. Jones, M.Y.: Rowe, F.G.; Jackson, B. and Prichard, N.J. The use of alcoholic paper wipes for routine hand cleansing: Results of trials in two hospitals. J Hosp Infect. 1986; 8: 268-274.
31. Rotter, M.L. Alcohols for antisepsis of hands and skin. Handbook of Disinfectants and Antiseptics. J. M. Ascenzi, Ed.. , Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 1996. pp. 177-233.
32. Rotter, M.L. Handwashing, hand disinfection, and skin disinfection. Prevention and Control of Nosocomial Infections. R.P. Wenzel, Ed., Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 1997; pp. 691-709.
33. Fendler, E.J. Physico-chemical considerations. Skin Moisturization: Development and Clinical Use. M. Loden and H.I. Maibach, Eds. CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2000. pp. 175-182.
34. Newman, J.L. and Seitz, J.C. Intermittant use of an antimicrobial hand gel for reducing soap-induced irritation of health care personnel. Am J Infect Control. 1990; 18: 194-200.
35. Pugliese, G. and Favero, M.S. (eds). Alcohol rubs: CDC's new hand hygiene guidelines. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2001; 22: 56-57.
36. Earl, M.L.; Jackson, M.M.; and Rickman, L.S. Improved rates of compliance with hand antisepsis guidelines: A three-phase observational study. Am J Nurs. 2001; 101: 26-33.
37. Hammond, B.; Ali, Y.; Fendler, E. and Dolan, M. Effect of hand sanitizer use on elementary school absenteeism. Am J Infect Control. 2000; 28: 340-346.
38. Fendler, E.; Ali, Y.; Hammond, B.S.; Lyons, M.K.; Kelley, M.B. and Vowell, N.A. The impact of alcohol hand sanitizer use on infection rates in an extended care facility. Am J Infect Control. 2001; (in press).
By Pat Tydell, page 51.
1. US Department of Health and Human Services Food and Drug Administration Center of Devices and Radiological Health. Enforcement priorities for single-use devices reprocessed by third parties and hospitals. August 14, 2000.
2. FDA's proposed strategy on reuse of single-use devices. August 24, 2001. www.ffda.gov/cdrh/reuse/singleuse/html.
3. Harbrecht, Doug. Sterilization A to Z. Infection Control Today. June 2001.
4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Nosocomial infection and pseudoinfection from contaminated endoscopes and bronchoscopes. Wisconsin and Missouri. October 4, 1991.
5. Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. Inside Perspectives. "Exposure to Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease. Issue 20, June, 2001.
6. West, John C. "Risk Management Issues in the Reuse of Single Use Devices: American Society for Healthcare Risk Managers. Summer, 2000.
7. United States Surgical Corp. v. Orris, Inc. 5 F. Supp. 2nd 1201 aat 1207.
8. Annals of Internal Medicine. Position paper. Ethics Manual, 4th edition. April 1998.
9. Selvey, Don. Medical device reprocessing: is it good for your organization? Infection Control Today. January 2001.
10. APIC. Responding to Safer Sharps Legislation. January 21, 2001.
11. AORN. Reuse of Single Use Disposable Devices. AORN Online.
12. Walker, E.D. Reuse of disposable medical devices. American Society of Healthcare Risk Managers. Fall 1984.