Urinary tract infections (UTIs) -- including upper and lower symptomatic -- are the most common infections in nursing homes and prevention may reduce patient suffering, antibiotic use and resistance; however, researchers say agents used in preventing UTIs in nursing homes is scarcely documented.
Jenny Bergman, of the Regional Medicines Information and Pharmacovigilance Centre at Haukeland University Hospital in Bergen, Norway, and colleagues, conducted a one-day, point-prevalence study in 44 Norwegian nursing homes during April-May 2006. Nursing home residents prescribed any agent for UTI prophylaxis were included. Information recorded was type of agent and dose, patient age and gender, together with nursing home characteristics. Appropriateness of prophylactic prescribing was evaluated with references to evidence in the literature and current national guidelines.
The study included 1,473 residents. 18 percent (n=269) of the residents had at least one agent recorded as prophylaxis of UTI, varying between 0 percent to 50 percent among the nursing homes. Methenamine was used by 48 percent of residents prescribed prophylaxis, vitamin C by 32 percent, and cranberry products by 10 percent. Estrogens were used by 30 percent but only one-third was for vaginal administration. Trimethoprim and nitrofurantoin were used as prophylaxis by 5 percent and 4 percent, respectively.
The researchers concluded that agents frequently prescribed to prevent UTIs in Norwegian nursing homes lack documented efficacy including methenamine and vitamin C. Recommended agents like trimethoprim, nitrofurantoin and vaginal estrogens are infrequently used. We conclude that prescribing of prophylactic agents for UTIs in nursing homes is not evidence-based. Their research was published in BMC Geriatrics.
Reference: Bergman J, Schjott J and Blix HS. Prevention of urinary tract infections in nursing homes: lack of evidence-based prescription? BMC Geriatrics 2011, 11:69doi:10.1186/1471-2318-11-69