Progress in Diagnosing Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

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World TB Day is March 24, 2014. Photo credit: PAS Center/Valeriu Crudu

Almost half a million people fell ill with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in 2012, yet less than 1 in 4 of these people was diagnosed, mainly due to a lack of access to quality diagnostic services. But with an innovative international project, 27 countries are making promising progress in diagnosing MDR-TB, says the World Health Organization (WHO) in the lead-up to World TB Day, March 24, 2014.

The project known as EXPAND-TB (Expanding Access to New Diagnostics for TB), financed by UNITAID, helped to triple the number of MDR-TB cases diagnosed in participating countries.

“Earlier and faster diagnosis of all forms of TB is vital,” says Dr. Margaret Chan, WHO director-general. “It improves the chances of people getting the right treatment and being cured, and it helps stop spread of drug-resistant disease.”

The theme for World TB Day 2014 is “Reach the 3 Million.” One-third of the estimated 9 million people falling ill with TB each year do not get the care they need. In many countries, it is hard for people to access diagnostic services – particularly for MDR-TB. Some countries have only one central laboratory, which often has limited capacity to diagnose MDR-TB. In some cases, patient samples have to be sent to other countries for testing. Moreover, traditional diagnostic tests can take more than 2 months to get results. But the situation is beginning to change. New technologies can rapidly diagnose TB and drug-resistant TB in as little as two hours.

“The MDR-TB story is being transformed by a fertile mix of collaborators, including those working on access to diagnosis,” says Philippe Meunier, the French government’s ambassador for the fight against HIV/AIDS and communicable diseases. “Increased capacity and reduced prices mean more patients can be served, and global health risks would be diminished.”

In 2009, UNITAID provided US$ 87 million to support the EXPAND-TB multi-partner project to enable effective and sustained access, and use of recommended new TB diagnostic technologies in 27 low- and middle-income countries. These countries together carry 40 percent of the estimated global MDR-TB burden.

The project has delivered impressive results. More than 30 percent of the MDR-TB cases detected globally in 2012 were from EXPAND-TB countries. Ninety percent of India’s detected MDR-TB cases were through EXPAND-TB supported services. Use of these tests requires strengthened laboratory services. By the end of 2013, 92 laboratories were fully operational. From 2009 to 2013, the number of MDR-TB cases diagnosed in the 27 countries tripled, with 36 000 diagnosed in 2013 alone.

The project has enabled more patients to be treated with quality-assured second-line TB medicines. Through that demand, the project has helped to reduce the price of individual medicines and MDR-TB treatment regimens by one third. Prices have also dropped for diagnostic commodities.

Project partners are WHO and the Global Laboratory Initiative (GLI), the Stop TB Partnership’s Global Drug Facility and FIND. Project funds have been used to purchase testing equipment and commodities, and to train laboratory technicians.

The EXPAND-TB project complements investments in laboratory infrastructure and diagnostic services from international partners, including The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria, The World Bank and the United States government.

“The gap in access to TB diagnostics and care is far from filled, but is narrowing. With the impetus of modern laboratories, we are on the right track finally to handle MDR-TB,” says Dr. Mario Raviglione, director of WHO’s Global TB Program.

Ministries of health are now working on securing domestic funding for the medium-term and working with partners to fill financing shortfalls for quality diagnostic tests and services.

Source: WHO

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