Infection Control Today - 06/2004: References

IMPROVING INFLUENZA IMMUNIZATION RATES AMONG HEALTHCARE WORKERS: A PUBLIC HEALTH IMPERATIVE, BY JEANNE PFEIFFER, RN, MPH, CIC, AND BARBARA SOULE, RN, MPA, CIC, PAGE 8.

1. CDC. Prevention and control of influenza: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice (ACIP). MMWR. 2003;52(RR8):1-44.

CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE TOXIN: DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT, AND PREVENTION OF DISEASE, BY MARCIA HARDICK, RN, BS, CGRN, PAGE 13.

1. Elliot T, Hastings M, and Desselberger U. Lecture notes on medical microbiology. Third edition. Cambridge, Blackwell Science, 1997.

2. Mandal B, Wilkins E, Dunbar E, and Mayon-White R. Lecture Notes on Infectious Diseases. Fifth edition. Cambridge, Blackwell Science, 1996.

3. Ray A. Clostridium difficile infection and concurrent vancomycin-resistant enterococcus stool colonization in a healthcare worker: case report and review of the literature. A Journ Infection Control. 31(1): 54-56, 2003.

4. Fekety R. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of clostridium difficile- associated diarrhea and colitis. A Journ of Gastroenterology. 97(5), 739-750, 1997.

5. Klingler P, Metzger P, Seelig M, Pettit P, Knudsen J, and Alvarez S. Clostridium difficile infection: risk factors, medical and surgical management. Digestive Diseases. 18:146-160, 2000.

6. Miller J, Walton J, and Tordecilla L. Recognizing and managing Ccostridium difficile-associated diarrhea. Med Surg Nursing. 7(6): 348, 1998.

7. Kyne L, Hamel M, Polavaram R, and Kelly C. Healthcare costs and mortality associated with nosocomial diarrhea due to clostridium difficile. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 34:346-353, 2002.

8. Mayfield J, Leet T, Miller J, and Mundy L. Environmental control to reduce transmission of clostridium difficile. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 31:995-1000, 2000.

9. Manian F, Meyer L, and Jenne J. Clostridium difficile contamination of blood pressure cuffs: A call for a closer look at gloving practices in the era of universal precautions. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology. 17(3): 180-182, 1996.

10. Zafar A, Gaydos L, Furlong W, Nguyen M, and Mennonna P. Effectiveness of infection control program in controlling nosocomial clostridium difficile. AJIC. 26(6): 558-593, 1998.

12. Wilcox M, Fawley W, Wigglesworth N, Parnell P, Verity P, and Freeman J. Comparison of the effect of detergent vs. hypochlorite cleaning on environmental contamination and incidence of clostridium difficile infection. J. Hospital Infection. 54: 109-114, 2003.

BIOBURDEN: ERADICATING THE HIDDEN VECTORS, BY BECKI JENSEN, CST, RCST, CRCST, FEL, PAGE 24.

1. Central Restaurant Supply/Storage systems 2. Ninemeier JD. Central Service Technical Manual, Sixth Edition, IAHCSMM, Chicago. 2003.

3. Block S. Disinfection, sterilization and preservation. Fourth Edition.1991.

4. AAMI ST 35/CDV-/2002-01-15

5. OSHA Directives CPL 2-2.44D-Enforcement procedures for the occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens. Effective: Nov. 5, 1999.

6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Draft guideline for environmental infection control for healthcare facilities. 2001.

CLINICAL REQUIREMENTS OF BODY-WORN HAND SANITATION: ACCESSIBILITY IS THE KEY TO HAND HYGIENE COMPLIANCE, BY RON CAGLE, PAGE 30.

1. Boyce JM, Pittet D. Guidelines for hand hygiene in healthcare settings, CDC Oct. 25, 2002 /51(RR16);1-44.

2. Pittet D. Improving compliance with hand hygiene. Prevention and control of nosocomial infections. Fourth edition, pp. 524-541.

3. Bischoff WE, Reynolds TM, Sessler CN, Edmond MB, Wenzel RP. Handwashing compliance by healthcare workers. The impact of introducing an accessible, alcohol-based hand antiseptic. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160:101721.

4. Pittet D. Compliance with hand disinfection and its impact on nosocomial infections. J Hosp Infect. 2001;28(Suppl A):S40-S46

ARE YOU PREPARED FOR A MASS-CONTAMINATION EVENT AT YOUR FACILITY? BY BY LORI HAGEN, CPHQ, PAGE 38.

1. 2004 Comprehensive Accreditation Manual for Hospitals

2. VHA Directive 2003-045: Mass Casualty Decontamination

ASEPTIC TECHNIQUE: BEST PRACTICES IN REAL LIFE, BY KATHY DIX, PAGE 44.

1. www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000666.htm

2. www.sepsisforum.org/PDF%20files/understanding%20sepsis%20web%20version%20July%202002.pdf

3. www.engenderhealth.org/ip/aseptic/atm2.html

NEW GUIDELINES AIM TO DECREASE SEPSIS-RELATED MORTALITY, BY KELLY M. PYREK, PAGE 50.

1. Dellinger RP, et al. Surviving sepsis campaign guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock. Crit Care Med. 2004, Vol. 32, No. 3, pp. 858-873.

2. Levy MM, et al. 2001 SCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS international sepsis definitions conference. Crit Care Med. 2003, Vol. 31, No. 4, pp. 1250-1256.

HANDLE WITH CARE: CLEANING AND DISINFECTING RIGID AND FLEXIBLE SCOPES, BY JOHN ROARK, PAGE 62.

1. Recommended practices for cleaning and processing endoscopes and endoscope accessories. AORN Journal, Feb, 2003.

ACUTE VIRAL HEPATITIS: A PROBLEM PATHOGEN FOR HEALTHCARE PROFESSIONALS, BY CAROLYN L. TWOMEY, RN, BSN, PAGE 54.

1. World Health Organization. Healthcare worker safety. Aide-Memoire for a strategy to protect health workers from infection with blood-borne viruses. WHO/BCT/03.11. Accessed at:
http://www.who.int/injection_safety/
toolbox/en/AM_HCW_Safety_EN.pdf on February 9, 2004.

2. Fry DE. The ABCs of Hepatitis. Chapter 19. Advances in Surgery. Volume 33, 1999, Mosby, Inc.

3. Ibid.

4. Ibid.

5. Acute Viral Hepatitis. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. Section 4. Chapter 42. Accessed at
http://www.merck.com/mrkshared/
mmanual/section4/chapter42/42b.jsp on January 26, 2004.

6. Hepatitis and Related Diseases. Regional Office for the Western Pacific, Fiftieth session, Macao. World Health Organization. 13-17 September 1999.

7. Ibid.

8. Fry DE. The ABCs of Hepatitis. Chapter 19. Advances in Surgery. Volume 33, 1999, Mosby, Inc.

9. Hepatitis A. WHO Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response. World Health Organization. Accessed at: http:// www.who.int/emcdocuments.hepatitis/
docs/whocdscsredc2007.html/virus/stability.html on January 26, 2004.

10. Stapleton JT. Host immune response to hepatitis A virus. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1995, 171 (Suppl 1):S9-S14 11. Hepatitis A. American Medical Association. Accessed at: http://www.amaassn.

org/ama/pub/category/2347.html on January 26, 2004.

12. Ahluwalia JPS, Graber MA, Silverman WB. Gastroenterology and Hepatology: Viral Hepatitis. University of Iowa Family Practice Handbook, Fourth Edition, Chapter 5. Accessed at:
http://www.vh.org/adult/provider/
familymedicine/FPHandbook/Chapter05/17-5.html on January 26, 2004.

13. Hepatitis A. WHO Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response. World Health Organization. Accessed at: http:// www.who.int/emcdocuments.hepatitis/
docs/whocdscsredc2007.html/disease/prevalence.hrml on January 26, 2004.

14. Hepatitis A. World Health Organization Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response. Accessed at: http://www.who.int/emcdocuments/hepatitis/
docs/whocdscsredc2007.html/disease/risks_groups.htm on January 26, 2004.

15. Acute Viral Hepatitis. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. Section 4. Chapter 42. Accessed at
http://www.merck.com/mrkshared/
mmanual/section4/chapter42/42b.jsp on January 26, 2004.

16. Fry DE. The ABCs of Hepatitis. Chapter 19. Advances in Surgery. Volume 33, 1999, Mosby, Inc.

17. Hepatitis A. WHO Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response. World Health Organization. Accessed at: http://www.who.int/emcdocuments/hepatitis/docs/whocdscsredc2007.html/disease/the_disease.html on January 26, 2004.

18. Ibid.

19. Hepatitis A. WHO Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response. World Health Organization. Accessed at: http://www.who.int/emcdocuments/hepatitis/
docs/whocdscsredc2007.html/disease/the_disease.html on January 26, 2004.

20. Hepatitis A. WHO Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response. World Health Organization. Accessed at: http:// www.who.int/emcdocuments.hepatitis/
docs/whocdscsredc2007.html/disease/transmission.hrml on January 26, 2004.

21. Hepatitis A. WHO Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response. World Health Organization. Accessed at: http://www.who.int/emcdocuments/hepatitis/
docs/whocdscsredc2007.html/disease/the_disease.html on January 26, 2004.

22. Ibid.

23. Fry DE. The ABCs of Hepatitis. Chapter 19. Advances in Surgery. Volume 33, 1999, Mosby, Inc.

24. Hepatitis A. American Medical Association. Accessed at:
http://www.amaassn.org/ama/pub/category/2347.html on January 26, 2004.

25. Ibid.

26. Ahluwalia JPS, Graber MA, Silverman WB. Gastroenterology and Hepatology: Viral Hepatitis. University of Iowa Family Practice Handbook, Fourth Edition, Chapter 5. Accessed at:
http://www.vh.org/adult/provider/
familymedicine/FPHandbook/Chapter05/17-5.html on January 26, 2004.

27. Fry DE. The ABCs of Hepatitis. Chapter 19. Advances in Surgery. Volume 33, 1999, Mosby, Inc.

28. Hepatitis B. World Health Organization. Department of Communicable Diseases Surveillance and Response. WHO/CDS/CSR/LYO/2002.2:Hepatitis B. Accessed at http://www.who.int/emc on January 26, 2004.

29. Fry DE. The ABCs of Hepatitis. Chapter 19. Advances in Surgery. Volume 33, 1999, Mosby, Inc.

30. Ibid.

31. Hepatitis B. WHO Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response. World Health Organization. Accessed at: http://www.who.int/emcdocuments/hepatitis/
docs/whocdscsrlyo20022/disease/transmission.html on January 26, 2004 32. Hepatitis B. WHO Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response. World Health Organization. Accessed at:
http://www.who.int/emcdocuments/hepatitis/
docs/whocdscsrlyo20022/disease/prevalence.html on January 26, 2004.

33. Ibid.

34. Ibid.

35. Hepatitis B. WHO Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response. World Health Organization. Accessed at: http://www.who.int/emcdocuments/hepatitis/
docs/whocdscsrlyo20022/disease/stability.html on January 26, 2004 36. Hepatitis B. WHO Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response. World Health Organization. Accessed at:
http://www.who.int/emcdocuments/hepatitis/
docs/whocdscsrlyo20022/disease/transmission.html on January 26, 2004 37. Hepatitis B. WHO Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response. World Health Organization. Accessed at:
http://www.who.int/emcdocuments/hepatitis/
docs/whocdscsrlyo20022/disease/risk_groups.html on January 26, 2004 38. Fry DE. The ABCs of Hepatitis. Chapter 19. Advances in Surgery. Volume 33, 1999, Mosby, Inc.

39. Hepatitis B. WHO Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response. World Health Organization. Accessed at: http://www.who.int/emcdocuments/hepatitis/
docs/whocdscsrlyo20022/disease/clinical_phases.html on January 26, 200 40. Hepatitis B. WHO Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response. World Health Organization. Accessed at:
http://www.who.int/emcdocuments/hepatitis/
docs/whocdscsrlyo20022/disease/progression.html on January 26, 2004.

41. Hepatitis B. WHO Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response. World Health Organization. Accessed at: http://www.who.int/emcdocuments/hepatitis/docs/
whocdscsrlyo20022/disease/bclinical_features.html on January 26, 2004.

42. Hepatitis B. WHO Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response. World Health Organization. Accessed at: http://www.who.int/emcdocuments/hepatitis/docs
/whocdscsrlyo20022/disease/surveillance/vaccine.html  on January 26, 2004.

43. Fry DE. The ABCs of Hepatitis. Chapter 19. Advances in Surgery. Volume 33, 1999, Mosby, Inc.

44. Ibid.

45. Ibid.

46. Ibid.

47. NIH Consensus Statement on Management of Hepatitis C:2002. NIH Consensus and State-of-the- Science Statements;Vol 19, No 3, June 10-12, 2002. National Institutes of Health. Office of the Director. Accessed at : http://consensus.nih.gov on January 26, 2004.

48. Ibid.

49. Ibid.

50. Fry DE. The ABCs of Hepatitis. Chapter 19. Advances in Surgery. Volume 33, 1999, Mosby, Inc.

51. Fong TL, Schoenfield LJ. Hepatitis C. MedicineNet. Accessed at:
http://www.medcinenet.com/Hepatitis_c/article.htm on January 26, 2004.

52. Ahluwalia JPS, Graber MA, Silverman WB. Gastroenterology and Hepatology: Viral Hepatitis. University of Iowa Family Practice Handbook, Fourth Edition, Chapter 5. Accessed at:
http://www.vh.org/adult/provider
/familymedicine/FPHandbook/Chapter05/17-5.html on January 26, 2004.

53. NIH Consensus Statement on Management of Hepatitis C:2002. NIH Consensus and State-of-the- Science Statements;Vol 19, No 3, June 10-12, 2002. National Institutes of Health. Office of the Director. Accessed at : http://consensus.nih.gov on January 26, 2004.

54. Ibid.

55. Fong TL, Schoenfield LJ. Hepatitis C. MedicineNet. Accessed at:
http://www.medcinenet.com/Hepatitis_c/article.htm on January 26, 2004. Acute Viral Hepatitis. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. Section 4. Chapter 42. Accessed at
http://www.merck.com/mrkshared/
mmanual/section4/chapter42/42b.jsp on January 26, 2004.

56. Ahluwalia JPS, Graber MA, Silverman WB. Gastroenterology and Hepatology: Viral Hepatitis.

University of Iowa Family Practice Handbook, Fourth Edition, Chapter 5. Accessed at:
http://www.vh.org/adult/provider/familymedicine
/FPHandbook/Chapter05/17-5.html on January 26, 2004.

57. Fong TL, Schoenfield LJ. Hepatitis C. MedicineNet. Accessed at:
http://www.medcinenet.com/Hepatitis_c/article.htm on January 26, 2004.

58. NIH Consensus Statement on Management of Hepatitis C:2002. NIH Consensus and State-of-the- Science Statements;Vol 19, No 3, June 10-12, 2002. National Institutes of Health. Office of the Director. Accessed at : http://consensus.nih.gov on January 26, 2004.

59. Ibid.

60. Fry DE. The ABCs of Hepatitis. Chapter 19. Advances in Surgery. Volume 33, 1999, Mosby, Inc.

61. Fong TL, Schoenfield LJ. Hepatitis C. MedicineNet. Accessed at:
http://www.medcinenet.com/Hepatitis_c/article.htm on January 26, 2004.

62. Ahluwalia JPS, Graber MA, Silverman WB. Gastroenterology and Hepatology: Viral Hepatitis. University of Iowa Family Practice Handbook, Fourth Edition, Chapter 5. Accessed at:
http://www.vh.org/adult/provider/
familymedicine/FPHandbook/Chapter05/17-5.html on January 26, 2004.

63. Fong TL, Schoenfield LJ. Hepatitis C. MedicineNet. Accessed at:
http://www.medcinenet.com/Hepatitis_c/article.htm on January 26, 2004.

64. World Health Organization. Hepatitis C Fact Sheet No. 164. Revised October 2000. Accessed at:
http://www.who.int/inf-fs/en/fact164.html on February 2, 2004.

65. Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board. Global surveillance and control of hepatitis C. Journal of Viral Hepatitis 1999;6:35-47.

66. Ibid.

67. Fry DE. The ABCs of Hepatitis. Chapter 19. Advances in Surgery. Volume 33, 1999, Mosby, Inc.

68. Ibid.

69. Ibid.

70. Ibid.

71. Ibid.

72. Acute Viral Hepatitis. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. Section 4. Chapter 42. Accessed at
http://www.merck.com/mrkshared/
mmanual/section4/chapter42/42b.jsp on January 26, 2004.

73. Fry DE. The ABCs of Hepatitis. Chapter 19. Advances in Surgery. Volume 33, 1999, Mosby, Inc.

74. Acute Viral Hepatitis. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. Section 4. Chapter 42. Accessed at http://www.merck.com/mrkshared/
mmanual/section4/chapter42/42b.jsp on January 26, 2004.

75. Ahluwalia JPS, Graber MA, Silverman WB. Gastroenterology and Hepatology: Viral Hepatitis. University of Iowa Family Practice Handbook, Fourth Edition, Chapter 5. Accessed at:
http://www.vh.org/adult/provider/familymedicine
/FPHandbook/Chapter05/17-5.html on January 26, 2004.

76. Hepatitis B. Coinfection or Superinfection with HDV. WHO Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response. World Health Organization. Accessed at:
http://www.who.int/emcdocuments/hepatitis
/docs/whocdscsrlyo20022/disease/coinfection.html on January 26, 2004.

78. Fry DE. The ABCs of Hepatitis. Chapter 19. Advances in Surgery. Volume 33, 1999, Mosby, Inc.

79. Hepatitis E. World Health Organization. Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response. WHO/CDS/CSR/EDC/2001.12. Accessed at: http://www.who.int.emc on January 26, 2004.

80. Bisceglie AM. Hepatitis G Virus Infection, A work in Progress. Annals of Internal Medicine 1996;125(9):772-773.

81. Ibid.

82. Tanaka E, Alter HJ, Nakatsuji Y. Effect of Hepatitis G Virus Infection on Chronic Hepatitis C. Annals of Internal Medicine 1996;125:740-743.

83. Ibid.

84. Fry DE. The ABCs of Hepatitis. Chapter 19. Advances in Surgery. Volume 33, 1999, Mosby, Inc.

85. Ibid.

86. Ibid.

87. Ibid.

88. Ibid.

89. Acute Viral Hepatitis. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. Section 4. Chapter 42. Accessed at
http://www.merck.com/mrkshared/
mmanual/section4/chapter42/42b.jsp on January 26, 2004.

90. Ahluwalia JPS, Graber MA, Silverman WB. Gastroenterology and Hepatology: Viral Hepatitis. University of Iowa Family Practice Handbook, Fourth Edition, Chapter 5. Accessed at:
http://www.vh.org/adult/provider/familymedicine
/FPHandbook/Chapter05/17-5.html on January 26, 2004.

91. NIH Consensus Statement on Management of Hepatitis C:2002. NIH Consensus and State-of-the-Science Statements;Vol 19, No 3, June 10-12, 2002. National Institutes of Health. Office of the Director. Accessed at : http://consensus.nih.gov on January 26, 2004.

92. Rabussay DP, Korniewicz DM. Improving glove barrier effectiveness. AORN J 1997;66(6):1043-1046, 1049-1054, 1057-1060.

93. Duron JJ, Keilani K, Wilan NG. Efficacy of double gloving with a colored inner pair for immediate detection of operative glove perforations. Eur J Surg 1996;162:941-944.

94. Nicolai P, Aldam CH, Allen PW. Increased awareness of glove perforation in major joint replacement. J Bone Joint

STERILE PROCESSING TRAINING: REMEMBER THE TURTLE ... NOT THE HARE, BY NANCY CHOBIN, RN, AAS, CSPDT, CSPDS, CSIT, CSPDM, PAGE 74.

1. Philips L. The Continuing Education Guide. 1994.

2. Chobin N. The Real Costs for Surgical Instrument Training in Central Service. Surgical Services Management. August, 1998.

3. Odiore GS. Personnel Policy: Issues and Practices. Columbus, Ohio.

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