Infection Control Today

June 1, 2004

June 2001

Sterilization A to Z
By: Doug Harbrecht

  1. ANSI/AAMI/ISO 11135-1994 Medical devices - Validation and Routine Control
    of ethylene oxide sterilization.
  2. EN 550:1994 - Sterilization of Medical Devices- Validation and routine
    control of ethylene oxide sterilization.
  3. ANSI/AAMI/ISO 10993-7:1995 Biological evaluation of medical devices - Part
    7 Ethylene oxide residuals.
  4. ANSI/AAMI/ISO 11134-1993 Sterilizatoin of health care products - Requirements
    for validation and routine control - Industrial moist heat sterilization.
  5. ANSI/AAMI/ISO 11137-1994 Sterilization of health care products - Requirements
    for validation and routine control - Radiation sterilization.
  6. ANSI/AAMI/ISO 11737-1-1995 Sterilization of medical devices - Microbiological
    methods-Part 1: Estimation of population of microorganisms on products.
  7. ANSI/AAMI/ISO 11737-2-1998 Sterilization of medical devices - Microbiological
    methods-Part 2: Test of sterility performed in the validation of a sterilization
    process.
  8. ANSI/AAMI/ISO 11607-1997 Packaging for terminally sterilized medical devices.
  9. AAMI TIR No. 7-1990 Chemical Sterilants and Sterilization Methods: A Guide
    to Selection and Use.
  10. AAMI TIR No. 8-1991 Microbiological Methods for Gamma Irradiation Sterilization
    of Medical Devices.
  11. AAMI TIR No. 12-1994 Designing, Testing, and Labeling Reusable Medical
    Devices for Reprocessing in Health Care Facilities:m A Guide for Medical Device
    Manufacturers.
  12. AAMI TIR No. 13-1997 Principles of Industrial Moist Heat Sterilization
  13. AAMI TIR No. 15-1997 Ethylene Oxide Sterilization Equipment, Process Considerations,
    and Pertinent Calculations.
  14. AAMI TIR No. 16-1998 Process development and performance qualification
    for ethylene oxide sterilization - Microbiological aspects.
  15. AAMI TIR No. 17-1997 Radiation Sterilization - Material qualification.
  16. AAMI TIR No. 19-1998 Guidance for ANSI/AAMI/ISO 10993-7:1995, Biological
    evaluation of medical devices - Part 7 Ethylene oxide residuals.
  17. AAMI TIR No. 22-1998 Guidance for ANSI/AAMI/ISO 11607-1997 Packaging for
    terminally sterilized medical devices.
  18. Block, S.S., (ed), Disinfection, Sterilization, and Preservation, 4th
    edition, Lea & Febiger, 1991.
  19. Booth, A. F, "Industrial Sterilization Technologies," Med
    Dev Diag Indust, 17(2):64-72, 1995.

Preventing Intraveneous Catheter-Associated Infections:
An Update
By Marlene Welman Schimd

  1. Robins, J. (1997). An admission of death. (Hospital-acquired infections).
    New Statesman, Sept 26. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0FQP/n4353_v126/20038959/print.jhtml
  2. Fatality Analysis Reporting System. (2001). http://www-fars.mhtsa.dot.gov.
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2000). Monitoring hospital-acquired
    infections to promote patient safety - United Sates, 1990-1999. MMWR Mortality
    Weekly Report.
    49(9):189.
  4. Kohn, L. Corrigan, J., Donaldson, M. (1999). To err is human: building a
    safer health system. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine, National Academy
    Press.
  5. Mermel, L.A. (1996). Bacteriology, safety and prevention of infection associated
    with continuous intravenous infusions. Blood Coagulapathy Fibrinolysis
    (Suppl 1), S45-51.
  6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2000). Monitoring hospital-acquired
    infections to promote patient safety - United Sates, 1990-1999. MMWR Mortality
    Weekly Report
    . 49(8);149-153.
  7. Widmer, A. (1997). Intravenous-Related Infections. In RP Wenzel (ed.)
    Prevention and Control of Nosocomial Infections. Baltimore, MD: Williams
    and Williams. 771-805.
  8. Abramson, J.H. and Abramson, Z.H. (1999). Survey Methods in Community
    Medicine
    . (5th ed.) New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone.
  9. Pelletier, S.J., Crabtree, T.D., Gleason, T.G. & Sawyer, R.G. (2000).
    Bacteremia associated with central venous catheter infection is not an independent
    predictor of outcomes. Journal of the American College of Surgeons,
    190 (6), 671-680.
  10. Marik, P.E., (2000). Fever in the ICU. Chest. 3 http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0984/3-117/61635221/print.jhtml.
  11. Barbone, M.(1999). A tip of the cap to intermittent infusions. Nursing,
    Feb. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m3231/2_29/529968/print.jhtml
  12. Valanis, B.(1986). Epidemiology in Nursing and Health Care. East
    Norwalk, CT: Appleton-Centry-Crofts.
  13. Maki, D.G., Weise, C.E., Sarafin, H.W. (1977) A semiquantiatative culture
    method for identifying intravenous-catheter-related infection. New England
    Journal of Medicine
    . 296;1305-1309.
  14. Maki, D.G. (1992). Infection due to infusion therapy. In Bennett, J.V.,
    Brachman, P.S. (eds.): Hospital Infections (3rd ed.). Boston: Little,
    Brown.
  15. Anderson, K., Anderson, L., & Glanze, W. (1998). Mosbys Medical,
    Nursing & Allied Health Dictionary
    (5th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
  16. Mermel, L.A. (1996). Bacteriology, safety and prevention of infection associated
    withcontinuous intravenous infusions. Blood Coagulapathy Fibrinolysis
    (Suppl 1), S45-51.
  17. Mermel. L.A. (2000). APIC Text of Infection Control and Epidemiology.Intravascular
    Device Infections. Washington, DC: Association for Practitioners in Infection
    Control, Inc. 30-1 - 30-8.
  18. Darouiche, R., Raad, I. & Heard, S.O. et al. (1999). A comparison of
    two antimicrobial-impregnated central venous catheters. New England Journal
    of Medicine
    , 340, p. 1-8.
  19. Maki, D.G. (1989). The use of antiseptics for handwashing by medical personnel.
    Journal of Chemotherapy, (Suppl 1),3.
  20. Mimoz, O., Pieroni, L. &Lawrence, et al., (1996). Prospective, randomized
    trial of two antiseptic solutions for prevention of central venous or arterial
    catheter colonization and infection in intensive care unit patients. Critical
    Care Medicine
    , 24, p.1818-1823.
  21. Tacconelli, E., Tumbarello, M. & Pittiruti, et al., (1997). Central
    venous ctheter-related sepsis in a cohort of 366 hospitalized patients. European
    Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Diseases
    . 340, p. 48-49
  22. Wenzel, R.P.& Edmond, M.B. (1991). The evolving technology of venous
    assess. New England Journal Medicine, 340, p. 48-49.
  23. Brown, D.F. and Warren, R.E. (1990). Effect of sample volume on yield of
    positive blood cultures from adult patients with hematological malignancy.
    Journal of Clinical Pathology
    : 43:777-779.
  24. Bjornson, H.S. (1993). Pathogenesis, prevention, and management of catheter-associated
    infections. New Horizons, 1 (2), p. 271-278.
  25. Beck-Sague, C.M., Jarvis, W.R. (1993). Secular trends in the epidemiology
    of nosocomial fungal infections in the United States, 1980-1990. Journal
    of Infectious Diseases
    . 167, 1247-1251.
  26. National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (NNIS) system report,
    data summary from October 1986-April 1998, issued June 1998. American Journal
    Infection control,
    272, p. 522-533.
  27. Banerjee, S.M. et.al. (1991). Secular trends in nosocomial primary bloodstream
    infections in the United States. American Journal of Medicine. 91(Suppl
    3B), 86S.
  28. Schalberg, D.R., Culver, D.H., & Gaynes, R.P. (1991). Major trends in
    the microbial etiology of nosocomial infections. American Journal of Medicine
    (suppl 3B), B72S-75S.
  29. Weinstein, S.M. (1997). Plumers Principles & Practice of Intravenous
    Therapy
    , (6th ed.). Philidelphia, PA: Lippincott. 84-109.
  30. Life Sciences Pharmeceuticals. (2000). Microbiological monitoring of the
    cleanroom laundry. The Journal of Advancing Applications in Contamination
    Control
    . 3(3), 13-16.
  31. Dunne, W.M. (1994). Mechanisms of Infectious Disease; In Porth, C.M., Pathophysiology:
    Concepts of Altered Health States
    . (4th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: J.B. Lippincott
    Company, pp. 221-241.
  32. Amdur, M. O. (1973). Industrial Toxicology in NIOSH of the U.S. Department
    of Health and Human Services, The Industrial Environment - Its Evaluation
    & Control
    . Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. 61-73.
  33. Lawlor, G.J., Jr., Fischer, T.J. and Adelman, D.C. (1995). Manual of
    Allergy and Immunology
    . Boston, MA: Little, Brown, and Co. see Robinson,
    R. reference at http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/g2601/0000/2601000045/p1/article.jhtml?term=%22Allergic+rhinitis%22
  34. Vendor Booth. (1995). At the Association for Practitioners in Infection
    Control (1995). 22th Annual Educational Conference and International Meeting,
    May, 1995 .
  35. Phillips, L. D. (1997). Manual of I.V. Therapeutics. (2nd ed). Philadelphia:
    F.A. Davis. 156-173.
  36. Smith-Temple, J. & Johnson, J.Y. (1998). Nurses Guide to Clinical
    Procedures
    . (3rd. ed). Philadelphia, P.A.: Lippincott. 172-231.
  37. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (November 5, 1999). Enforcement
    procedures for the occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens. OSHA Instruction
    , CPL2-2.44D, in Code of Federal Register 29, Part 1910. Washington,
    DC: U.S. Department of Labor. 1-68. See also: Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne
    Pathogen Injuries; Final Rule. - 66:5317-5325 effective April 18, 2001at: http://www.osha-slc.gov/FedReg_osha_date/FED20010118A.html
  38. Sitges-Serra, A. (1999). Strategies for prevention of catheter-related bloodstream
    infections. Support Care Cancer, 7 (6), p.391-395.
  39. Abrams, G.D. (1992). Response of the Body to infectious agents. In S.A.
    Price and L.M. Wilson (eds.) Pathophysiology: Clinical Concepts and Disease
    Process
    (4th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby. pp 64-71.
  40. Jorgensen, J.H.& Rinaldi, M.G.(1986). A Clinicians Dictionary of
    Bacteria and Fungi.
    Indianapolis, IN: Eli Lilly and Company.
  41. Maki, D.G., Goldman, D.A., & Rhama, F.S., (1973). Infection control
    in intravenous therapy. Annals of Internal Medicine, 79, 869-870, 872,
    875-876, 878, 880.
  42. Walter, C.W. (1956). The aseptic treatment of wounds. New York: Macmillan.
  43. Intravenous Nurses Society. (2000). Infusion Nursing Standards of Practice.
    Journal of Intravenous Nursing. 23(6S); Infusion equipment #42 Tourniquet,
    p.S36; Site Selection and Device Placement S37, Catheter Placement, S42-S43;
    Standards: Nursing Practice, S5-S72.
  44. Sheff, B. (1998), VRE & MRSA: putting bad bugs out of business. Nursing.
    3, http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m3231/n3_v28/20381218/print.jhtml.
    1-6.
  45. Maki, D.G., Alvarado, C.J, & Ringer, M. (1991). A prospective, randomized
    trial of providone-iodine, alcohol, and chlorhexidine for prevention of infection
    with central venous and arterial catheters. Lancet, 3389-3399.
  46. Boyce, J.M. (1996). Preventing Staphyloccal infections by eradicating nasal
    carriage of Staphylococcus aureus. Infection Control and Hospital
    Epidemiology
    . 17 (12), http://www.slackinc.com/general/iche/stor1296/boyce.htm.
  47. Reed C.R., Sessler, C.N., Glauser, F.L. & Phelan, B.A. (1995). Central
    venous catheter infections: concepts and controversies. Intensive Care
    Medicine
    , 21 (2), p. 177-183.
  48. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (October 17, 1997). Occupational
    Exposure to Tuberculosis; Proposed Rule in Code of Federal Register 29,
    Part 1910
    . Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor. 62:54159-54309. http://www.osha-slc.gov/FedReg_osha_data/FED19971017.html.

 

Working as a Perioperative Team
By: Ruth A. LeTexier

  1. Berry $ Kohns Operating Romm Technique, 9th edition (St. Louis: Mosby,
    2000) 13.
  2. Murphy E. OR Nursing Law: Applications of the Captain of the Ship
    doctrine. AORN Journal October 1990; v52:863-6.
  3. Van Norman, Gail, MD Ehtics in Medicine, University of Washington School
    of Medicine http://eduserv.hscer.washington.edu/bioethics/topic/team.html.
  4. Morrison, Janet L. Evolution of the perioperative clinical nurse specialist
    role. AORN Journal August 2000 v72 i2, 227.
  5. Berry $ Kohns Operating Romm Technique, 9th edition (St. Louis: Mosby,
    2000) 13.
  6. Ulmer, Brenda C. Professional advocacy. AORN Journal July 200, v72:9
  7. Dawes, Brenda S. Gregory, Building Teams, Synergy, and Your Resources,
    AORN Journal 72 September 2000 372
  8. Van Norman, Gail, MD Ehtics in Medicine, University of Washington School
    of Medicine http://eduserv.hscer.washington.edu/bioethics/topic/team.html.
  9. Maun, Clint Conflict Management: What Really Works? Surgical Services
    Management, June 200, V6 37-40.

Gluteraldehyde Safety
By: Phillip Coles

  1. ANSI/AAMI ST58-1996.
  2. Reprocessing of Flexible Gastrointestinal Endoscopes, December 1995.
  3. Advanced Sterilization Products. 1999. Directions for Use, Cidex
    OPA.
  4. Notarianni G. Logan Associates and Purdue/IAHCSMM: Glutaraldehyde
    Safety Action Plan.Self-Study Series:32.
  5. Teta, MJ, Avashia, BH, Cawley, TJ, Yamin, AL. 1995. Absences of Sensitizations
    and Cancer Increases Among Glutarldehyde Workers. Toxic Substance Mechanism.
    14:293-305.

Best Practices
New Patient Safety Standards: Impact on Infection Control
By Pat Tydel

  1. Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations.
    Sentinel Events: Evaluating Cause and Planning Improvement. JCAHO,
    1998.
  2. National Center for Patient Safety. Patient Safety Handbook. 2000.
  3. Revisions to Joint Commission Standards in Support of Patient Safety
    and Medical/Health Care Error Reduction. Effective July 1, 2001. www.jcaho.org
  4. Inside the Joint Commission. Healthcare Accreditation Resource
    Center, February 19, 2001.
  5. McLaughlin, S. Codes + Standards Coming up in 2001. Health Facilities
    Management.
    November, 2000.
  6. Calloway, SD, JCAHOs patient safety and medical error reduction
    standards for hospitals. Conference, February, 2001.
  7. The National Academies. www.nationalacademies.org. Crossing the
    Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century.