February References

February References

"Reprocessing Update," by Kelly M. Pyrek, page 28.

1. US General Accounting Office, Report to Congressional Requesters. Single-use medical devices: Little available evidence of harm from reuse but oversight warranted. June 2000. GAO/HEHS-00-123, www.gao.gov.

2. Medical Device Manufacturers Association, www.medicaldevices.org/public/alert/2001/agenda.asp.

3. GAO report, p. 19, www.gao.gov.

4. ibid.

5. GAO report, pp. 7-8, www.gao.gov.

6. GAO report, p.8, www.gao.gov.

7. GAO report, p. 10, www.gao.gov.

8. GAO report, p. 11, www.gao.gov.

9. ibid.

10. US Surgical Corp vs. Orris, Inc. 5 F. Supp.2d 1201 at 1207.

11. GAO report, p. 11, www.gao.gov.

12. ibid.

13. GAO report, p. 12, www.gao.gov.

14. www.cdc.gov/ncidod/hip/sterile/sterilgp.htm.

15. GAO report, p. 12, www.gao.gov.

16. AORN Guidance Statement, Reuse of Single-Use Devices. www.aorn.org.

17. Cohen, J., et al. A prospective study of the repeated use of sterilized papillotomes and retrievel baskets for ERCP: quality and cost analysis. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 1997:Vol. 45, No. 2, pp. 122-127.

18. FDA Center for Devices and Radiological Health. www.fda.gov/cdrh/osb/guidance/1334.pdf

19. GAO report, p. 15, www.gao.gov.

20. ibid.

21. CDC. Nosocomial infection and pseudoinfection from contaminated endoscopes and bronchoscopes. MMWR. 1991:Vol. 40, No. 39, pp. 675-678; and CDC. Bronchoscopy-related infections and pseudoinfections. MMWR. 1999:Vol. 48, No. 26, pp. 557-560.

"Matching the Disinfectant to the Job," by Michelle Gardner, page 14.

1. www.epa.gov

2. APIC Guideline for Selection and Use of Disinfectants. American Journal of Infection Control. 1996.

3. www.ehs.ucdavis.edu/sftynet/sn-51.html

4. www.epa.gov/pesticides/citizens/motherjq.htm

"Avoiding Healthcare's Hazards: An Occupational Health Update," by John Furman, page 36.

1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, (1998). Guideline for Infection Control in Healthcare Personnel. Amer Journal of Infec Control. 26(3)

2. American Nurses Association. Health & Safety Survey. 2001. www.NursingWorld.org.

3. American Nurses Association. Staffing Survey. 2001. www.NursingWorld.org

4. Public Law 106-430. Needlestick Safety and Prevention Act. Federal Register, 2001.

5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2001). Updated US Public Health Service Guidelines for the Management of Occupational Exposures to HBV, HCV, and HIV and Recommendations for Postexposure Prophylaxis. MMWR. 50(RR-11).

6. OSHA Recordkeeping Rule 29 CFR 1904.

7. CDC. Draft Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Healthcare Settings. 2001. www.cdc.gov/ncicod/hip/hhguide.htm

8. NIOSH. Control of Smoke From Laser/Electric Surgical Procedures. NIOSH Hazard Alert.

"FDA Labeling of Liquid Chemical Sterilants: Are Modifications Needed?" by Lawrence F. Muscarella, PhD, page 50.

1. Heller, J. New sterilization system cuts repair costs for rigid scopes. Mat Mgmnt. 1996 Sept;70.

2. Fuselier, H.A. and Mason, C. Liquid sterilization versus high level disinfection in the urologic office. Urology. 1997;50(3):337-40.

3. Muscarella, L.F. Current instrument reprocessing practices. Results of a national survey. Gastroenterol Nurs. 2001;24(5):253-60.

4. Muscarella, L.F. Anticipated reliability of liquid chemical sterilants. Am J Infect Control. 1998 Apr;26(2):155-6.

5. Food and Drug Administration. Guidance for industry and FDA reviewers. Content and format of premarket notification [510(k)] submissions for liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants. Issue date: January 3, 2000.

6. Muscarella, L.F. Are all sterilization processes alike? AORN J. 1998 May;67(5):966-70, 973-6.


8. Bond, W.W. Biological indicators for a liquid chemical sterilizer: a solution to the instrument reprocessing problem? Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1993 Jun;14(6):309-12.

9. Struelens, M.J.; Rost, F.; Deplano, A.; Maas, A.; Schwam, V. and Serruys, E., et al. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia after biliary endoscopy: an outbreak investigation using DNA macrorestriction analysis. Am J Med. 1993;95(5):489-98.

10. Alvarado, C.J.; Stolz, S.M.; and Maki, D.G. Nosocomial infections from contaminated endoscopes: a flawed automated endoscope washer. An investigation using molecular epidemiology. Am J Med. 1991 Sep 16;91(3B):272S-280S.

11. Mitchell, D.H.; Hicks, L.J.; Chiew, R.; Montanaro, J.C.; and Chen, S.C. Pseudoepidemic of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 6 associated with contaminated bronchoscopes. J Hosp Infect. 1997;37:19-23.

12. Humphreys, H. and Lee, J.V. Water quality for endoscope washer-disinfectors. J Hosp Infect. 1999;42(1):76-8.

13. Phillips, G.; McEwan, H. and Butler, J. Quality of water in washer-disinfectors. J Hosp Infect. 1995;31:152-4.

14. Cooke, R.P.D.; Whymant-Morris, A.; Umasankar, R.S. and Goddard, S.V. Bacteria-free water for automatic washer-disinfectors: an impossible dream? J Hosp Infect 1998;39(1):63-5.

15. Berlau, J. A new risk for high-tech surgery? Investor's Business Daily. February 14,2000;16:A1, A26.

16. Muscarella, L.F. Disinfecting endoscopes immediately before the first patient of the day. AORN J. 2001 Jun;73(6):1159-63.

"Multi-drug Resistant Bacteria: Mechanisms of Resistance, Epidemiology and Prevention," by Keith Kaye, MD, MPH, page 42.

1. Kaye, K.S. and Kaye, D. Multidrug-resistant Pathogens: Mechanisms of Resistance and Epidemiology. Curr Infect Dis Rep 2000; 2:391-398.

2. Kaye, K.S.; Fraimow, H.S.; and Abrutyn, E. Pathogens resistant to antimicrobial agents. Epidemiology, molecular mechanisms, and clinical management. Infect Dis Clin North Am 2000. 14:293-319.

3. Williamson, R; le Bouguenec, C.; Gutmann, L.; and Horaud, T. One or two low affinity penicillin-binding proteins may be responsible for the range of susceptibility of Enterococcus faecium to benzylpenicillin. J Gen Microbiol. 1985; 131:1933-40.

4. NNIS. National Nosocomial Infections Surviellance (NNIS) System Report, Data Summary from October 1986-April 1998, Issued June 1998. In National Nosocomial Infections Surviellance (NNIS) System Report, Data Summary from October 1986-April 1998, Issued June 1998: Atlanta, 1998.

5. Klare, I.; Heier, H.; and Claus, H., et al. Enterococcus faecium strains with vanA-mediated high-level glycopeptide resistance isolated from animal foodstuffs and fecal samples of humans in the community. Microb Drug Resist. 1995; 1:265-72.

6. Eliopoulos, G.M. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Mechanism and clinical relevance. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1997; 11:851-65.

7. Linden, P.K. Clinical implications of nosocomial gram-positive bacteremia and superimposed antimicrobial resistance. Am J Med. 1998; 104:24S-33S.

8. Rybak M.J.; Cappelletty, D.M.; Moldovan, T.; Aeschlimann, J.R.; Kaatz, G.W. Comparative in vitro activities and postantibiotic effects of the oxazolidinone compounds eperezolid (PNU-100592) and linezolid (PNU- 100766) versus vancomycin against Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase- negative staphylococci, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterococcus faecium. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998; 42:721-4.

9. Groom, A.V.; Wolsey, D.H.; Naimi, T.S., et al. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a rural American Indian community. JAMA. 2001; 286:1201-5.

10. Herold, B.C.; Immergluck, L.C.; Maranan, M.C., et al. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in children with no identified predisposing risk [see comments]. JAMA. 1998; 279:593-8.

11. Crossley, K.; Loesch, D.; Landesman, B.; Mead, K.; Chern, M.; and Strate, R. An outbreak of infections caused by strains of Staphylococcus aureus resistant to methicillin and aminoglycosides. I. Clinical studies. J Infect Dis. 1979; 139:273-9.

12. Onorato, M.; Borucki, M.J.; and Baillargeon, G., et al. Risk factors for colonization or infection due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in HIV-positive patients: a retrospective case- control study. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1999; 20:26-30.

13. Neu, H.C. The crisis in antibiotic resistance [see comments]. Science. 1992; 257:1064-73.

14. Spratt, B.G. Resistance to antibiotics mediated by target alterations. Science. 1994; 264:388-93.

15. Smith, T.L.; Pearson, M.L.; and Wilcox, K.R., et al. Emergence of vancomycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Glycopeptide-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Working Group [see comments]. N Engl J Med. 1999; 340:493-501.

16. Tenover, F.C.; Lancaster, M.V.; Hill, B.C., et al. Characterization of staphylococci with reduced susceptibilities to vancomycin and other glycopeptides [published erratum appears in J Clin Microbiol. 1998 Jul;36(7):2167]. J Clin Microbiol 1998; 36:1020-7.

17. Sieradzki, K. and Tomasz, A. Suppression of glycopeptide resistance in a highly teicoplanin- resistant mutant of Staphylococcus aureus by transposon inactivation of genes involved in cell wall synthesis. Microb Drug Resist. 1998; 4:159-68.

18. Moreira, B.; Boyle-Vavra, S.; deJonge, B.L.; and Daum, R.S. Increased production of penicillin-binding protein 2, increased detection of other penicillin-binding proteins, and decreased coagulase activity associated with glycopeptide resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1997; 41:1788-93.

19. Hiramatsu, K.; Aritaka, N. and Hanaki, H., et al. Dissemination in Japanese hospitals of strains of Staphylococcus aureus heterogeneously resistant to vancomycin [see comments]. Lancet. 1997; 350:1670-3.

20. Luh, K.T.; Hsueh, P.R.; and Teng, L.J., et al. Quinupristin-dalfopristin resistance among gram-positive bacteria in Taiwan. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2000; 44:3374-80.

21. Tsiodras, S.; Gold, H.S.; and Sakoulas, G., et al. Linezolid resistance in a clinical isolate of Staphylococcus aureus. Lancet. 2001; 358:207-8.

22. Hoogkamp-Korstanje, J.A. In-vitro activities of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, lomefloxacin, ofloxacin, pefloxacin, sparfloxacin and trovafloxacin against gram- positive and gram-negative pathogens from respiratory tract infections. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1997; 40:427-31.

23. Jacobs, C.; Frere, J.M.; and Normark, S. Cytosolic intermediates for cell wall biosynthesis and degradation control inducible beta-lactam resistance in gram-negative bacteria. Cell 1997; 88:823-32.

24. Jacobs, C. Pharmacia Biotech & Science prize. 1997 grand prize winner. Life in the balance: cell walls and antibiotic resistance. Science. 1997; 278:1731-2.

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26. Andriole, V.T. The Quinolones. In The Quinolones: New York: Academic Press, 1998.

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28. Livermore, D.M. beta-Lactamases in laboratory and clinical resistance. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1995; 8:557-84.

29. Jacoby, G.A. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and other enzymes providing resistance to oxyimino-beta-lactams. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1997; 11:875-87.

30. Kollef, M.H. and Fraser, V.J. Antibiotic resistance in the intensive care unit. Ann Intern Med 2001; 134:298-314.

31. Niederman, M.S. Is "crop rotation" of antibiotics the solution to a "resistant" problem in the ICU? Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1997; 156:1029-31.

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33. Gruson, D; Hilbert, G.; Vargas, F., et al. Rotation and restricted use of antibiotics in a medical intensive care unit. Impact on the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia caused by antibiotic-resistant gram-negative bacteria. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000; 162:837-43.

34. Kollef MH, Ward S, Sherman G, et al. Inadequate treatment of nosocomial infections is associated with certain empiric antibiotic choices. Crit Care Med 2000; 28:3456-64.

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37. Widmer AF. Replace hand washing with use of a waterless alcohol hand rub? Clin Infect Dis 2000; 31:136-43.

38. McNeil S, Foster C, Hedderwick S, Kauffman C. Effect of Hand Cleansing with Antimicrobial Soap or Alcohol-Based Gel on Microbial Colonization of Artificial Fingernails Worn by Health Care Workers. Clin Infect Dis 2001; 32:367-72.

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42. Haley RW, Cushion NB, Tenover FC, et al. Eradication of endemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections from a neonatal intensive care unit. J Infect Dis 1995; 171:614-24.

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