February References

February 1, 2002

February References

"Reprocessing Update," by Kelly M. Pyrek, page 28.

1. US General Accounting Office, Report to Congressional Requesters.
Single-use medical devices: Little available evidence of harm from reuse but
oversight warranted. June 2000. GAO/HEHS-00-123, www.gao.gov.

2. Medical Device Manufacturers Association, www.medicaldevices.org/public/alert/2001/agenda.asp.

3. GAO report, p. 19, www.gao.gov.

4. ibid.

5. GAO report, pp. 7-8, www.gao.gov.

6. GAO report, p.8, www.gao.gov.

7. GAO report, p. 10, www.gao.gov.

8. GAO report, p. 11, www.gao.gov.

9. ibid.

10. US Surgical Corp vs. Orris, Inc. 5 F. Supp.2d 1201 at 1207.

11. GAO report, p. 11, www.gao.gov.

12. ibid.

13. GAO report, p. 12, www.gao.gov.

14. www.cdc.gov/ncidod/hip/sterile/sterilgp.htm.

15. GAO report, p. 12, www.gao.gov.

16. AORN Guidance Statement, Reuse of Single-Use Devices. www.aorn.org.

17. Cohen, J., et al. A prospective study of the repeated use of sterilized
papillotomes and retrievel baskets for ERCP: quality and cost analysis. Gastrointestinal
1997:Vol. 45, No. 2, pp. 122-127.

18. FDA Center for Devices and Radiological Health. www.fda.gov/cdrh/osb/guidance/1334.pdf

19. GAO report, p. 15, www.gao.gov.

20. ibid.

21. CDC. Nosocomial infection and pseudoinfection from contaminated
endoscopes and bronchoscopes. MMWR. 1991:Vol. 40, No. 39, pp. 675-678;
and CDC. Bronchoscopy-related infections and pseudoinfections. MMWR.
1999:Vol. 48, No. 26, pp. 557-560.

"Matching the Disinfectant to the Job," by Michelle Gardner,
page 14.

1. www.epa.gov

2. APIC Guideline for Selection and Use of Disinfectants. American Journal
of Infection Control
. 1996.

3. www.ehs.ucdavis.edu/sftynet/sn-51.html

4. www.epa.gov/pesticides/citizens/motherjq.htm

"Avoiding Healthcare's Hazards: An Occupational Health Update,"
by John Furman, page 36.

1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, (1998). Guideline for
Infection Control in Healthcare Personnel. Amer Journal of Infec Control.

2. American Nurses Association. Health & Safety Survey. 2001. www.NursingWorld.org.

3. American Nurses Association. Staffing Survey. 2001. www.NursingWorld.org

4. Public Law 106-430. Needlestick Safety and Prevention Act. Federal
Register, 2001.

5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2001). Updated US Public
Health Service Guidelines for the Management of Occupational Exposures to HBV,
HCV, and HIV and Recommendations for Postexposure Prophylaxis. MMWR.

6. OSHA Recordkeeping Rule 29 CFR 1904.

7. CDC. Draft Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Healthcare Settings. 2001. www.cdc.gov/ncicod/hip/hhguide.htm

8. NIOSH. Control of Smoke From Laser/Electric Surgical Procedures. NIOSH
Hazard Alert.

"FDA Labeling of Liquid Chemical Sterilants: Are Modifications
Needed?" by Lawrence F. Muscarella, PhD, page 50.

1. Heller, J. New sterilization system cuts repair costs for rigid scopes. Mat
. 1996 Sept;70.

2. Fuselier, H.A. and Mason, C. Liquid sterilization versus high level
disinfection in the urologic office. Urology. 1997;50(3):337-40.

3. Muscarella, L.F. Current instrument reprocessing practices. Results of a
national survey. Gastroenterol Nurs. 2001;24(5):253-60.

4. Muscarella, L.F. Anticipated reliability of liquid chemical sterilants. Am
J Infect Control
. 1998 Apr;26(2):155-6.

5. Food and Drug Administration. Guidance for industry and FDA reviewers.
Content and format of premarket notification [510(k)] submissions for liquid
chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants. Issue date: January 3, 2000.

6. Muscarella, L.F. Are all sterilization processes alike? AORN J.
1998 May;67(5):966-70, 973-6.


8. Bond, W.W. Biological indicators for a liquid chemical sterilizer: a
solution to the instrument reprocessing problem? Infect Control Hosp
. 1993 Jun;14(6):309-12.

9. Struelens, M.J.; Rost, F.; Deplano, A.; Maas, A.; Schwam, V. and Serruys,
E., et al. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia after
biliary endoscopy: an outbreak investigation using DNA macrorestriction
analysis. Am J Med. 1993;95(5):489-98.

10. Alvarado, C.J.; Stolz, S.M.; and Maki, D.G. Nosocomial infections from
contaminated endoscopes: a flawed automated endoscope washer. An investigation
using molecular epidemiology. Am J Med. 1991 Sep 16;91(3B):272S-280S.

11. Mitchell, D.H.; Hicks, L.J.; Chiew, R.; Montanaro, J.C.; and Chen, S.C.
Pseudoepidemic of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 6 associated with
contaminated bronchoscopes. J Hosp Infect. 1997;37:19-23.

12. Humphreys, H. and Lee, J.V. Water quality for endoscope
washer-disinfectors. J Hosp Infect. 1999;42(1):76-8.

13. Phillips, G.; McEwan, H. and Butler, J. Quality of water in
washer-disinfectors. J Hosp Infect. 1995;31:152-4.

14. Cooke, R.P.D.; Whymant-Morris, A.; Umasankar, R.S. and Goddard, S.V.
Bacteria-free water for automatic washer-disinfectors: an impossible dream? J
Hosp Infect

15. Berlau, J. A new risk for high-tech surgery? Investor's Business Daily.
February 14,2000;16:A1, A26.

16. Muscarella, L.F. Disinfecting endoscopes immediately before the first
patient of the day. AORN J. 2001 Jun;73(6):1159-63.

"Multi-drug Resistant Bacteria: Mechanisms of Resistance,
Epidemiology and Prevention," by Keith Kaye, MD, MPH, page 42.

1. Kaye, K.S. and Kaye, D. Multidrug-resistant Pathogens: Mechanisms of
Resistance and Epidemiology. Curr Infect Dis Rep 2000; 2:391-398.

2. Kaye, K.S.; Fraimow, H.S.; and Abrutyn, E. Pathogens resistant to
antimicrobial agents. Epidemiology, molecular mechanisms, and clinical
management. Infect Dis Clin North Am 2000. 14:293-319.

3. Williamson, R; le Bouguenec, C.; Gutmann, L.; and Horaud, T. One or two
low affinity penicillin-binding proteins may be responsible for the range of
susceptibility of Enterococcus faecium to benzylpenicillin. J Gen Microbiol.
1985; 131:1933-40.

4. NNIS. National Nosocomial Infections Surviellance (NNIS) System Report,
Data Summary from October 1986-April 1998, Issued June 1998. In National
Nosocomial Infections Surviellance (NNIS) System Report, Data Summary from
October 1986-April 1998, Issued June 1998: Atlanta, 1998.

5. Klare, I.; Heier, H.; and Claus, H., et al. Enterococcus faecium strains
with vanA-mediated high-level glycopeptide resistance isolated from animal
foodstuffs and fecal samples of humans in the community. Microb Drug Resist.
1995; 1:265-72.

6. Eliopoulos, G.M. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Mechanism and clinical
relevance. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1997; 11:851-65.

7. Linden, P.K. Clinical implications of nosocomial gram-positive bacteremia
and superimposed antimicrobial resistance. Am J Med. 1998; 104:24S-33S.

8. Rybak M.J.; Cappelletty, D.M.; Moldovan, T.; Aeschlimann, J.R.; Kaatz, G.W.
Comparative in vitro activities and postantibiotic effects of the oxazolidinone
compounds eperezolid (PNU-100592) and linezolid (PNU- 100766) versus vancomycin
against Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase- negative staphylococci, Enterococcus
faecalis, and Enterococcus faecium. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998;

9. Groom, A.V.; Wolsey, D.H.; Naimi, T.S., et al. Community-acquired
methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a rural American Indian
community. JAMA. 2001; 286:1201-5.

10. Herold, B.C.; Immergluck, L.C.; Maranan, M.C., et al. Community-acquired
methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in children with no identified
predisposing risk [see comments]. JAMA. 1998; 279:593-8.

11. Crossley, K.; Loesch, D.; Landesman, B.; Mead, K.; Chern, M.; and Strate,
R. An outbreak of infections caused by strains of Staphylococcus aureus
resistant to methicillin and aminoglycosides. I. Clinical studies. J Infect
. 1979; 139:273-9.

12. Onorato, M.; Borucki, M.J.; and Baillargeon, G., et al. Risk factors for
colonization or infection due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in
HIV-positive patients: a retrospective case- control study. Infect Control
Hosp Epidemiol
. 1999; 20:26-30.

13. Neu, H.C. The crisis in antibiotic resistance [see comments]. Science.
1992; 257:1064-73.

14. Spratt, B.G. Resistance to antibiotics mediated by target alterations. Science.
1994; 264:388-93.

15. Smith, T.L.; Pearson, M.L.; and Wilcox, K.R., et al. Emergence of
vancomycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Glycopeptide-Intermediate
Staphylococcus aureus Working Group [see comments]. N Engl J Med. 1999;

16. Tenover, F.C.; Lancaster, M.V.; Hill, B.C., et al. Characterization of
staphylococci with reduced susceptibilities to vancomycin and other
glycopeptides [published erratum appears in J Clin Microbiol. 1998
Jul;36(7):2167]. J Clin Microbiol 1998; 36:1020-7.

17. Sieradzki, K. and Tomasz, A. Suppression of glycopeptide resistance in a
highly teicoplanin- resistant mutant of Staphylococcus aureus by
transposon inactivation of genes involved in cell wall synthesis. Microb Drug
. 1998; 4:159-68.

18. Moreira, B.; Boyle-Vavra, S.; deJonge, B.L.; and Daum, R.S. Increased
production of penicillin-binding protein 2, increased detection of other
penicillin-binding proteins, and decreased coagulase activity associated with
glycopeptide resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents
Chemother 1997; 41:1788-93.

19. Hiramatsu, K.; Aritaka, N. and Hanaki, H., et al. Dissemination in
Japanese hospitals of strains of Staphylococcus aureus heterogeneously resistant
to vancomycin [see comments]. Lancet. 1997; 350:1670-3.

20. Luh, K.T.; Hsueh, P.R.; and Teng, L.J., et al. Quinupristin-dalfopristin
resistance among gram-positive bacteria in Taiwan. Antimicrob Agents Chemother
2000; 44:3374-80.

21. Tsiodras, S.; Gold, H.S.; and Sakoulas, G., et al. Linezolid resistance
in a clinical isolate of Staphylococcus aureus. Lancet. 2001;

22. Hoogkamp-Korstanje, J.A. In-vitro activities of ciprofloxacin,
levofloxacin, lomefloxacin, ofloxacin, pefloxacin, sparfloxacin and
trovafloxacin against gram- positive and gram-negative pathogens from
respiratory tract infections. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1997; 40:427-31.

23. Jacobs, C.; Frere, J.M.; and Normark, S. Cytosolic intermediates for cell
wall biosynthesis and degradation control inducible beta-lactam resistance in
gram-negative bacteria. Cell 1997; 88:823-32.

24. Jacobs, C. Pharmacia Biotech & Science prize. 1997 grand prize
winner. Life in the balance: cell walls and antibiotic resistance. Science.
1997; 278:1731-2.

25. Livermore DM. Acquired carbapenemases. J Antimicrob Chemother.
1997; 39:673-6.

26. Andriole, V.T. The Quinolones. In The Quinolones: New York: Academic
Press, 1998.

27. Jones, R.N.; Pfaller, M.A.; Doern, G.V.; Erwin, M.E.; and Hollis, R.J.
Antimicrobial activity and spectrum investigation of eight broad-spectrum beta-lactam
drugs: a 1997 surveillance trial in 102 medical centers in the US. Cefepime
Study Group. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 1998; 30:215-28.

28. Livermore, D.M. beta-Lactamases in laboratory and clinical resistance. Clin
Microbiol Rev
. 1995; 8:557-84.

29. Jacoby, G.A. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and other enzymes
providing resistance to oxyimino-beta-lactams. Infect Dis Clin North Am.
1997; 11:875-87.

30. Kollef, M.H. and Fraser, V.J. Antibiotic resistance in the intensive care
unit. Ann Intern Med 2001; 134:298-314.

31. Niederman, M.S. Is "crop rotation" of antibiotics the
solution to a "resistant" problem in the ICU? Am J Respir
Crit Care Med
. 1997; 156:1029-31.

32. Kollef, M.H.; Vlasnik, J.; Sharpless, L.; Pasque, C.; Murphy, D.; Fraser,
V. Scheduled change of antibiotic classes: a strategy to decrease the incidence
of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1997;

33. Gruson, D; Hilbert, G.; Vargas, F., et al. Rotation and restricted use of
antibiotics in a medical intensive care unit. Impact on the incidence of
ventilator-associated pneumonia caused by antibiotic-resistant gram-negative
bacteria. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000; 162:837-43.

34. Kollef MH, Ward S, Sherman G, et al. Inadequate treatment of nosocomial
infections is associated with certain empiric antibiotic choices. Crit Care
2000; 28:3456-64.

35. Gerding DN, Larson TA, Hughes RA, Weiler M, Shanholtzer C, Peterson LR.
Aminoglycoside resistance and aminoglycoside usage: 10 years of experience in
one hospital. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1991; 35:1284-90.

36. Dominguez EA, Smith TL, Reed E, Sanders CC, Sanders WE, Jr. A pilot study
of antibiotic cycling in a hematology-oncology unit. Infect Control Hosp
2000; 21:S4-8.

37. Widmer AF. Replace hand washing with use of a waterless alcohol hand rub?
Clin Infect Dis 2000; 31:136-43.

38. McNeil S, Foster C, Hedderwick S, Kauffman C. Effect of Hand Cleansing
with Antimicrobial Soap or Alcohol-Based Gel on Microbial Colonization of
Artificial Fingernails Worn by Health Care Workers. Clin Infect Dis 2001;

39. Ostrowsky BE, Trick WE, Sohn AH, et al. Control of vancomycin-resistant
enterococcus in healthcare facilities in a region. N Engl J Med 2001;

40. Chaix C, Durand-Zaleski I, Alberti C, Brun-Buisson C. Control of endemic
methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a cost-benefit analysis in
an intensive care unit. JAMA 1999; 282:1745-51.

41. Dembry LM, Uzokwe K, Zervos MJ. Control of endemic glycopeptide-resistant
enterococci. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1996; 17:286-92.

42. Haley RW, Cushion NB, Tenover FC, et al. Eradication of endemic
methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections from a neonatal
intensive care unit. J Infect Dis 1995; 171:614-24.