Infection Control Today

June 1, 2004

MARCH 2000


Now More Than Ever Glove Purchasers Need Thorough Product Knowledge by
Tito Aldape

1. Delbourg MF, Guiloux L, Moneret-Vautrin DA, Ville G. Hypersensitivity to
banana in latex-allergic patients: identification of two major banana
allergens of 33 and 37 kD. Annals of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology.
April 1996(76):321-326.

2. Alenius H, Kalkkinen N, Lukka M, Reunala T, Turjanmaa K,
Makinen-Kiljunen S, Yip E, Palosuo Y. Prohevein from the rubber tree (Hevea
brasiliensis) is a major latex allergen. Clinical and Experimental Allergy.
1995(24):659-665.

3. Bircher AJ, Langauer S, Levy F, Wahl R. The allergen of Ficus Benjamina
in house dust. Clinical and Experimental Allergy. 1995(25):228-233.

4. Rodriguez M, Vega F, Garcia MT, Panizo C, Laffond E, Montalvo A, Cuevas,
M. Hypersensitivity to latex, chestnut, and banana. Annals of Allergy.
January (70):1993:31-34.

5. de Corres LF, Moneo I, Munoz D, Bernaola G, Fernandez E, Audicana M,
Urrutia I. Sensitization from chestnuts and bananas in patients with urticaria
and anaphylaxis from contact with latex. Annals of Allergy. January
1993(70):35-39.

6. Tomazic VJ, Withrow TJ, Fisher BR, Dillard SF. Latex-associated
allergies and anaphylactic reactions. Clin Immunol Immunopathol.
1992(64):89-97.

7. Nutter AF. Contact urticaria to rubber. Br J Dermatol.
1979(101):597-598.


Stuck in Surgery by Craig Fernandes and Lucy Talikwa

1. NIOSH alert-preventing needlestick injuries in health care settings. DHHS
(NIOSH) Publication No. 2000-108
. Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention. November 1999: p. 9.

2. Exposure prevention information network (EPINet) data reports.
International Health Care Worker Safety Center, University of Virginia, 1999.

3. Davis M. Occupational injury and exposure to blood in surgery;
incidence, causes and prevention strategies. New Age Health, California Board
of Registered Nurses. www.nurseceu.com/cpu4.htm.
January 12, 2000.

4. Protection outweighs cost: consider price of an employee needlestick. Insights.
September/October 1999:2(4);6.

5. http://www.medicaldesignonline.com. January 12, 2000.

6. The Egar Group. Getting right to the point. Insights.
September/October 1999:2(4);1.

7. www.house.gov/stark/documents/106th/needlesticksum/html.
January 12, 2000.

8. OSHA Directives, CPL2-2.44-D-Enforcement Procedures for the Occupational
Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens. US Department of Labor. November 5, 1999.

9. Fahey BJ, Henderson DK. Reducing occupational risks in the workplace. Infections
in Medicine
. 1999. www.medscape.com.

10. California regs portend sharps safety crackdown. OR Manager.
November 1999:15(11);8.

11. Hensely S. Point of contention. Modern Healthcare. July 5, 1999:
p.38.


Intravascular Device-Related Infection Research Findings by Marlene
Wellman Schmid

1. Maki, DG. (1994). Infections caused by intravascular devices used for
infusion therapy: pathogenesis, prevention, and management. In: Bisno AL.
Waldvogel, F.A., eds. Infections Associated with Indwelling Medical Devices.
Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology, 155-212.

2. Maki DG, Ringer M. (1991). Risk factors for infusion related phlebitis
with small peripheral venous catheters. A randomized controlled trial. Ann
Intern Med
. 114:845-854.

3. Taber IB, Ginsberg MB, Ellis SE, et al. 1983. An epidemiologic
study of the risks associated with peripheral intravenous catheters. Am J
Epidemiol
. 118:839-851.

4. Beutler, JM. Inappropriate use of central venous catheters results in
one in 10 complications. J Am Assoc Nurse Anesth. 57 (5), 1989:389-390.

5. Norwood, Ruby, Civette, et al. 1991.

6. Lucas, 1999.

7. Pearson ML. (1996) Guideline for prevention of intravascular device
related infections. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 17:438-473.

8. Pittet D, Tarara D, Wenzel RP. (1994). Nosocomial bloodstream infection
in critically ill patients. JAMA. 271:1598-1601.

9. Pittet D, Wenzel RP. (1995) Nosocomial bloodstream infections. Secular
trends in rates, mortality and contribution to total hospital deaths. Arch
Intern Med
. 155:1177-1184.

10. Haley RP, Schaberg DR, Crossley KB, et al. (1981). Extra charges
and prolongation of stay attributable to nosocomial infections: a prospective
interhospital comparison. Am J Med. 70:51-58.

11. Maki DG. (1981). Nosocomial bacteremia. Am J Med. 70:183-196.

12. Feldstein A. (1986) Detect phlebitis and infiltration before they harm
your patient. Nursing. 86:(16) 44-47.

13. Maki DG, Botticelli JT, Leroy ML, et al. (1987). Prospective
study of replacing administration sets for intravenous therapy at 48- versus
72-hour intervals. JAMA. 258:1771-11781.

14. Intravenous Nurses Society, (1998). Revised Intravenous Nursing
Standards of Practice. J Intravenous Nurs. 21(15):S13-S93.

15. Abbott N, Wlarather JM, Scanlon-Trump E. (1983). Infection related to
physiologic monitoring: venous and arterial catheters. Heart Lung.
12:28-34.

16. Tully JL, Friedland GH, Baldini IM, et al. (1981). Complications
of intravenous therapy with steel needles and Teflon catheters: a comparison
study. Am J Med. 70:702-706.

17. Garland JS, Nelson DB, Cheah TE, et al. (1987). Infectious
complications during peripheral intravenous therapy with Teflon catheters: a
prospective study. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 6:918-921.

18. Hoffman, Western, Kaiser:1988

19. Widmer AF, Zimmerli W. (1988) [Fatal peripheral catheter phlebitis].
Letale periphere Kaheter-phlebitis. Schweiz Med Worchenschr.
118:1053-1055.

20. Richet H, Hubert B, Nitember G, et al. (1990) Prospective
multicenter study of vascular-catheter-related complications and risk factors
for positive central-catheter cultures in intensive care unit patients. J
Clin Microbiol
. 28:2520-2525.

21. Atlas RM. Principles of Microbiology (2nd ed.). Dubuque,
IA:William C. Brown Publishers. 1997:512-513, 1018-1119.

22. Torta GJ, Funke BR, Case C. Microbiology: An Introduction (5th
ed.), Redwood City, CA: The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc.
1995:368-369, 516-517, 518-519, 531-534.

23. Widmer AF, Zimmerli W. Fatal Peripheral Catheter Phleitis. Letale
periphere Kaheter-phleitis. Schweiz Med Worchenschr. 1988:118,
1053-1055.

24. Arnow PM, Quimosing EM, Beach M. (1993). Consequences of intravascular
catheter sepsis. Clin Infect Dis. 16:778-784.

25. Raad I, Narro J, Khan A, et al. (1992). Serious complications of
vascular catheter-related Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in cancer
patients. Eur J Clin Micrbiol Infect Dis. 11:675-682.

26. Raad I, Sabbagh MF. (1992) Optimal duration of therapy for
catheter-related Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: A study of 55 cases and
review. Clin Infect Dis. 14:75-82.

27. Widmer A. (1997). Intravenous-related infections. In RP Wenzel
Prevention and Control of Nosocomial Infections
, (3rd ed.). Baltimore, MD:
Williams and Wilkins. 771-805.

28. Pottinger J, Burns S, Maneke C. Bacterial carriage by artificial vs.
natural nails. AJIC. 1989; 17:340-344.

29. Maki DG, Ringer M, Alvarado C.J, et al. A prospective,
randomized trial of gauze and two polyurethane dressings for site care of
pulmonary artery catheters: implications for catheter management. Crit Care
Med
. 2, 1994:1729-1737.

30. Maki DG, Ringer M. (1991). Risk factors for infusion related phlebitis
with small peripheral venous catheters. A randomized controlled trial. Ann
Intern Med
. 114:845-854.

31. Benenson AS. Control of Communicable Diseases Manual (16th ed.),
1995.

32. Sitges-Serra A, Linares J, Garau J. (1985) Catheter sepsis: the clue is
the hub. Surgery. 97:355-357.

33. Maki DG, Stolz SS, Wheeler S, et al. A prospective, randomized
trial of gauze and two polyurethane dressings for site care of pulmonary
artery catheters: implications for catheter management (1994). Cnt Care Med.
2:1729-1737.

34. Wynd CA, Samstag DE, Lapp AM. Bacterial carriage on the Fingernails of
OR Nurses. AORN J. 60(3);1994:796-805.

35. Cercenado E, Ena J, Rodriguez Creixems M, et al. (1990). A
conservative procedure for the diagnosis of catheter-related infections. Arch
Intern Med
. 150: 1417-1420.

36. Cercenado E, Ena J, Rodriguez Creixems M, et al. A conservative
procedure for the diagnosis of catheter-related infections. Arch Intern Med.
150; 1990: 1417-1420.

37. Maki DG, Cobb L, Garman JK, et al. An attachable
silver-impregnated cuff for the prevention of infection with central venous
catheters: a prospective randomized multicenter trial. Am J Med. 85;
1988:307-314.

38. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Guidelines for prevention of
intravascular device-related infections. AJIC. 24 (4); 1996:262-293.

39. Farr, B. (1999). APIC, 1999, Baltimore, MD

40. Dunkle, et al. 1981.

41. Klinket, et al. 1976.

42. Thompson, et. al. 1982

43. Parker.

44. Craig & Sarber 1976

45. Peters G, Locci R, Pulverer G. (1982). Adherence of growth of
coagulate-negative staphylococci on surfaces of intravenous catheters. J
Infect Dis
. 146:479-482.

46. Farber BF. (1988). The multi-lumen catheter: proposed guidelines for
its use. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 9:206-208.

47. Olson IE, Lam K, Bodey GP, et al. (1992). 20:797-804.

48. Maki DG, Ringer M, Alvarado CJ. (1991). Prospective randomized trial of
povidone-iodine, alcohol, and chlorhexidine for prevention of infection
associated with central venous and arterial catheters. Lancet.
338:339-343


The Future of Sharps Disposal by Brian Mach


1. Selecting, Evaluating and Using Sharps Disposal Containers. NIOSH,
1998.


2. Sharps Injury Prevention Program: A Step-by-Step Guide. AHA, 1999.


Protective Apparel: Disposable vs. Reusable by Nathan L. Belkin

1. Carlson S. Single-vs. multiple-use protective apparel. Infect Control
Today.
1999; 3:72-75.

2. Recommended practices for use and selection of barrier materials for
surgical gowns and drapes. AORN J. 1996;63(3):650-654.

3. Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 29CFR, Part 1910.1030,
Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens: Final Rule. Federal Register.
1991:56 (Sec. 6) pp. 64040-64182.

4. American Society for Testing and Materials. F1670-95, Standard Test
Method for Resistance of Materials Used in Protective Clothing to Penetration
by Synthetic Blood. 1995, ASTM. West Conshohocken, PA.

5. American Society for Testing and Materials. F1671-95, Standard Test
Method for Resistance of Materials Used in Protective Clothing to Penetration
by Bloodborne Pathogens Using Phi-X174 Bacteriophage Penetration as a Test
System. 1995, ASTM. West Conshohocken, PA.

6. Belkin NL. Personal protective apparel: testing for the anticipated
level of exposure. Infect Control Today. 1997;3:32-41.

7. Belkin NL. Surgical gowns and drapes as aseptic barriers. AJIC.
1988;16(1):14-18.

8. Bernard HR, Beck WC. Operating room barriers: idealism, practicality and
the future. Bulletin of the American College of Surgeons. 1975;60:16.

9. Belkin NL. Cost vs. cost-effective. AORN J. 1996;63(3):632-633.

10. Stiff hospital bills readers' tales. Consumer Reports. March
1994:152.

11. DiGiacomo JC, Odom JW, Ritota PC, Swan KG. Cost containment in the
operating room: use of reusable versus disposable clothing. Am Surg.
1992:58(10):654-656.

12. Garcia R. Effective cost-reduction strategies in the management of
regulated medical waste. AJIC. 1999:27(2):165-175.

13. Mayberry P. New regulation to affect medical waste incinerators. Nonwovens
Industry.
October 1997:18-21.

14. Trash talk: health care honchos, feds get serious about hospital waste.
Health Facilities Manage. 1998;11(12):8.

15. Tieszen ME, Gruenberg JC. A quantitative, qualitative, and critical
assessment of surgical waste. JAMA. 1992;267(20):2765-2768.

Belkin NL. Are impervious surgical gowns really liquid proof? Bulletin of
the American College of Surgeons
. August 1999;84(8):19-36.