Reading Product Labels by Kirsten Buck and Marcia Ellis
1. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs Label Review Manual, August 10, 1998.
2. Larson, E. APIC Guideline for Handwashing and Hand Antisepsis in Healthcare Settings. American Journal of Infection Control. 1995; 23: 251-269.
3. Food and Drug Administration. OTC Topical Antimicrobial Products - Over-The Counter Drugs Generally Recognized as Safe, Effective and Not Misbranded. January 6, 1978, 21 CFR, Part 333:1210-1249.
4. Cosmetics, Toiletries and Fragrance Association Labeling Manual, Sixth Edition, 1997, page 6.
Isolation Rooms and Air Purification by Homa Christensen
1. JCAHO. A Guide to Managing Indoor Air Quality in Healthcare Organizations. An Environment of Care Book. 1997. Pg. 27-28. John F. McCarthy, ScD, CIH.
2. Center for Disease Control (CDC) - National Center for HIV, STD, & TB Prevention (NCHSTP) - Division of Tuberculosis Elimination (DTBE). Core Curriculum on Tuberculosis. Chapter 8: Infection Control in Health Care Settings, Engineering Controls. 2000.
3. National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Office of Communications and Public Liaison. Tuberculosis Fact Sheet. 1999.
4. World Health Organization (WHO). Guidelines for the Prevention of Tuberculosis in Health Care Facilities in Resource-Limited Settings. 1999
5. Catherine Arnst; Kerry Capell. Tuberculosis Roars Back. Business Week. October 2, 2000. Pg. 153.
6. Menzies, D., MD, MSc; Fanning, A., MD; Yuan L., MD; FitzGerald, J.M., MD; and the Canadian Collaborative Group in Nosocomial Transmission of TB. Hospital Ventilation and Risk for Tuberculous Infection in Canadian Health Care Workers. Ann Inern Med. 2000:779-789.
7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Guidelines for Preventing the Transmission of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in Health-Care Facilities. 1994. MMWR 1994; 43 (No. RR-13).
8. JCAHO. 2000 Hospital Accreditation Standards - Standards Intent. Pg. 198-199,
9. American Institute of Architects, 1996-1997 Guidelines for Design and Construction of Hospital and Health Care Facilities published by the American Institute of Architects Academy of Architecture for Health with, assistance from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS).
10. Francis J. Curry National Tuberculosis Center, a joint project of the San Francisco Dept. of Public Health and the University of California, San Francisco, funded by the CDC, Institutional Consultation Services, and California Department of Health Services. Video: How You Can Assess Engineering Controls for Tuberculosis in Your Healthcare Facility: You Dont Need a Weatherman to Know Which Way the Wind Blows.
Latex Allergies by Kim Sullivan
1. Liss GM, Sussman GL, Deal K, Brown S, Cividino M, Siu S, Beezhold DH, Smith G, Swanson MC, Yunginger J, Douglas A, Holness DL, Lebert P, Keith P, Wasserman S, Turjanmaa K. Latex allergy: epidemiological study of 1351 hospital workers. Occup & Environ Med 54:335-42 (1997).
2. Posch A, Chen Z, Raulf-Heimsoth M, Baur X. Latex allergens. Clin Exp Allergy 28:134-40 (1998).
3. Poley GE, Slater JE. Current reviews of allergy and clinical immunology: latex allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 105:1054-62 (2000).
4. Baur X, Chen Z, Allmers H. Can a threshold limit value for natural rubber latex airborne allergens be defined? J Allergy Clin Immunol 101:24-7 (1998).
5. Phillips VL, Goodrich MA; Sullivan TJ. Health care worker disability due to latex allergy and asthma: a cost analysis. Am J Public Health, 89:1024-1028 (1999).
6. Larson, E. Prevalence and correlates of skin damage on the hands of nurses. Heart & Lung 26:404-12 (1997).
7. Hayes BB, Afshari A, Millechia L, Willard PA, Povoski SP, Meade BJ. Evaluation of percutaneous penetration of natural rubber latex proteins. Toxicol Sci 56:262-70 (2000).
8. Kim KT, Graves PB, Safadi GS, Alhadeff G, Metcalfe J. Implementation recommendations for making health care facilities latex-safe. AORN J, 67: 615-632 (1998).
9. Trapé M, Schenck P, Warren A. Latex gloves use and symptoms in health care workers 1 year after implementation of a policy restricting the use of powdered gloves. Am J Infect Control 28:352-8 (2000).
10. Palosuo T, Makinen-Kiljunen S, Alenius H, Reunala T, Yip E, Turjanmaa K. Measurement of natural rubber latex allergen levels in medical gloves by allergen-specific IgE ELISA inhibition, RAST inhibition and skin prick test. Allergy 53: 59-67 (1998).
Occupational Exposure To TB by Gina Pugliese and Judene Bartley
1. Dye C, Scheele S, Dolin P, Pathania V, Raviglione MC Consensus statement. Global burden of tuberculosis: estimated incidence, prevalence, and mortality by country. WHO Global Surveillance and Monitoring Project. JAMA 1999 Aug 18;282(7):677-86.
2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Reported Tuberculosis in the United States, 1999. CDC: Atlanta, August 2000.
3. Moore M, Onorato IM, McCray E, Castro KG. Trends in drug-resistant tuberculosis in the United States. Journal of the American Medical Association 1997; 278: 833-37.
a. Pugliese G, Tapper M. TB control in hospitals. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 1996; 17: 819-827.
4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Guidelines for preventing the transmission of tuberculosis in health-care settings, with special focus on HIV-related issues. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 1990; 39 (No. RR-17).
5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Guidelines for preventing transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in health care facilities. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 1994; 43 (Reports and Recommendations No 13) 1-132.
6. Agerton TB, Valway SE, Blinkhorn RJ, Shilkret KL, Reves R, Schluter WW, et al. Spread of strain W, a highly drug-resistant strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, across the United States. Clinical Infectious Disease 1999;29:85-92.
7. Jarvis WR. Nosocomial transmission of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. American Journal of Infection Control 1995; 23: 146-51.
8. Sato K. Management and countermeasures against tuberculosis patients with chronic positive sputum. Kekkaku January 1996; 71: (1): 65-69.
9. 10. American Thoracic Society. Treatment of tuberculosis and tuberculosis infection in adults and children. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 1994; 149: 1359-74.
10. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevention and treatment of tuberculosis among patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus: principles of therapy and revised recommendations. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 1998; 47 (No. RR-20).
11. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Updated guidelines for the use of rifabutin or rifampin for the treatment and prevention of tuberculosis among HIV-infected patients taking protease inhibitors or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2000; 49 (No. 9).
12. Tazawa S, Marumo K, Nakamura Y. Epidemiologic evaluation of mycobacterial isolates in one city hospital: reports from the hospital microbiology laboratory. Kekkaku July 1997; 72 (&): 435-442.
13. Kako K, Sakakibara H, Satou M, Kamidaira T, Suetsugu S. Actual status of the management of tuberculosis patients in a university hospital without isolation wards for infectious disease. Kekkaku June 1997; 72 (6): 395-401.
14. Blumberg HM, Watkins DL, Berschling JD et al. Preventing the nosocomial transmission of tuberculosis. Annals of Internal Medicine 1995; 122:658-63.
15. Pugliese G. Screening for tuberculosis: an update. American Journal of Infection Control 1992; 20: 37-40.
16. Fazal BA, Telzak EE, Blum S. et al. Impact of a coordinated tuberculosis team in an inner-city hospital in New York City. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 1995; 16:340-43.
17. Johnson JL, Nyole S, Shepardson L, et al. Simultaneous comparison of two commercial tuberculin skin test reagents in an areas with high prevalence of tuberculosis (letter) Journal of Infectious Disease 1995; 171: 1066-7.
18. Shands JW, Boeff D, Fauerbach L and Gutekunst RR. Tuberculin testing in a tertiary hospital: product variability. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 1994 15: 758-60.
19. Horowitz HW, Luciano BB, Kadel JR, Wormser RP. Tuberculin skin test conversions in hospital employees vaccinated with Bacille Calmette-Guerin: recent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection or booster effect? Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 1995; 23:181-7.
20. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The role of BCG vaccine in the prevention and control of tuberculosis in the United States: a joint statement by the Advisory Council for Elimination of Tuberculosis and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 1996; 45 (Reports and Recommendations No. 11) 1-10.
21. 2001 AIA Guidelines for Design and Construction of Hospitals and Healthcare Facilities. American Institute of Architects Press, Washington DC: 1996-97 (&) 2001.
22. Pavelchak N, DePersis RP, London M, Stricof R, Oxtoby M et al. Identification of factors that disrupt negative air pressurization of respiratory isolation rooms. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 2000; 21:191-95.
23. Sheretz RJ, Belani A, Kramer BS. Impact of air filtration on nosocomial Aspergillus infections. American Journal of Medicine 1987;83: 709-718
24. Rutala WA, Jones SM, Worthington JM, et. al. Efficacy of portable filtration units in reducing aerosolized particles in the size range of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. 1995; 16: 391-398.
25. Riley RL, Wells WF, Mills CC et al. Air hygiene in tuberculosis: quantitative studies of infectivity and control in a pilot ward. American Review of Tuberculosis 1957; 75:420-431.
26. Riley RL, Mills CC, OGrady F, et al. Infectiousness of air from a tuberculosis ward. American Review of Respiratory Disease 1962; 85: 511-525.
27. Nardell EA. Fans, filters or rays? Pros and Cons of the current environmental tuberculosis control technologies. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 1993; 14: 681-685.
28. Nardell EA. Interrupting transmission from patients with unsuspected tuberculosis: a unique role for upper-room ultraviolet air disinfection. American Journal of Infection Control 1995; 23: 156-64.
29. 30. Macher JM The Use of Germicidal Lamps to Control tuberculosis in health care facilities. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 1993;14: 723-729.
30. First MW, Nardell EA, Chaisson W, Riley R. CH 99-12-1. Guidelines for the application of upper-room ultraviolet irradiation for preventing transmission of airborne contagion Part I Basic principles. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers Inc. Atlanta: ASHRAE Transactions 1999;105 1-732.
31. First MW, Nardell EA, Chaisson W, Riley R. CH 99-12-2. Guidelines for the application of upper-room ultraviolet irradiation for preventing transmission of airborne contagion Part II Design and operation guidance, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers Inc. Atlanta: ASHRAE Transactions 1999;105:1-10.
32. Eisenman MD. A leap of faith: what can we do to curtail intra-institutional transmission of tuberculosis? Annals of Internal Medicine 1992; 117: 251-3.
a. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Institutes for Health. Biosafety in microbiologic and biomedical laboratories. US Government Printing Office, Washington DC: US Department of Health and Human Services Public Health Service and National Institutes of Health, 4th Edition 1999; HHS Publication No. (CDC 93-8395).
33. Fridkin SK. Efficacy of TB control measures in U.S. Hospitals. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 1995; 16: 135-40.
TB: A Japanese Case Study by Dr. Toru Mori
1. Wells WF, Ratcliffe HL On the Mechanics of Droplet Nuclei Infection. Am J Hyg.1948; 47: 11-28.
2. Riley RL, Mills CC, O'Gradyet F et al: Infectiousness of Air from a Tuberculosis Ward. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1962; 85: 511-525.
3. Catanzaro A: Nosocomial Tuberculosis. Am Rev Respir Dis.1982; 125: 559-562.
4. Riley RL, Nardell EA: Cleaning the Air. Am Rev Respir Dis 1989; 139: 1286-1294.
5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Guidelines for preventing the transmission of tuberculosis in health-care facilities, 994. MMWR. 1994; 43 (RR-13): 1-132.
6. Nicas.M: Respiratory Protection and the Risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection. Am J Indust Med. 1995; 27: 317-333.
7. Barnhart.S, Sheppard L, Beaudet N, et al: Tuberculosis in Health Care Settings and Estimate Benefits of Engineering Controls and Respiratory Protection. J occup Enviro Med. 1997; 39: 849-854.
8. Fennelly KP, Nardell EA: The Relative Efficacy of Respirators and Room Ventilation in Preventing Occupational Tuberculosis. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1998; 19: 754-759.
9. Riley EC, Murphy G, Riley RL: Airborne Spread of Measles in a Suburban Elementary School. Am J Epidemiol. 1978;107; 421-432.
Resistant Bacteria: What are the Facts? by Rhonda D. Jones
1. Zafar AB, Butler RC, Reese DJ, Gaydos LA, Mennonna PA. Use of 0.3% triclosan (Bacti-Stat*) to eradicate an outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a neonatal nursery. Am J Infect Control 1995;23(3):200-208.
2. Anderson RL, Carr JH, Bond WW, Favero MS. Susceptibility of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci to Environmental Disinfectants. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. 1997; 18: 195-199.
3. Rutala WA, Stiegel MM, Sarubbi FA, Weber DJ. Susceptibility of Antibiotic-Susceptible and Antibiotic-Resistant Hospital Bacteria to Disinfectants. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. 1997; 18: 417-421.
4. Larson E. APIC guideline for handwashing and hand antisepsis in health
Am J Infect Control. 1995 Aug;23(4):251-69.
5. EPA, 40 CFR Parts 152 and 156 - Proposed Rule, Federal Register, Volume 64, September 17, 1999, pages 50672-50725.
No other references were provided for articles in the March, 2001 issue of Infection Control Today®.