"Best Practices for the Cleaning and Disinfection of Surgical Instruments," by Ruth A. Le Texier, BSN, RN, page 14
1. Shultz JK: Decontamination: recommended practices. In Reichert, M., Young, JH: Sterilization technology for the health care facility. 2nd edition. Gaithersburg, Md., 1997, Aspen. pp. 10-20.
2. Atkinson LJ, Fortunato NH: Berry & Kohn's operating room technique. 9th edition. St Louis, 2000, Mosby.
"Time Vs. Event: Preserving Sterile Package Integrity," by Kelly M. Pyrek, page 16.
2. Gruendemann, BJ and Mangum, SS. Infection prevention in surgical settings. WB Saunders Co.: Philadelphia. P. 214.
3. Gruendemann, BJ and Mangum, SS. Infection prevention in surgical settings. WB Saunders Co.: Philadelphia. P. 212.
4. Gruendemann, BJ and Mangum, SS. Infection prevention in surgical settings. WB Saunders Co.: Philadelphia. P. 213.
5. AORN 2002 Standards, Recommended Practices, and Guidelines. P. 290.
6. Gruendemann, BJ and Mangum, SS. Infection prevention in surgical settings. WB Saunders Co.: Philadelphia. P. 213.
"Flash Sterilization: A Questionable Practice Requires Proper Usage," by Michelle Gardner, page 20
1. Association for Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI). Flash sterilization: steam sterilization of patient care items for immediate use. ANSI/AAMI ST37-1996.
2. Association of periOperative Registered Nurses (AORN). 2001 Standards, Recommended Practices and Guideline, p. 311.
3. Huggins KA, Mood R, Koch F. A process for improving flash sterilization. AORN Jour. January 2002, Vol. 75, No. 1.
"Fighting Surgical Site Infections," by Bonnie M. Barnard, MPH, CIC, page 26
1. Martone WJ, Jarvis WR, Culver DH, Haley RW. Incidence and nature of endemic and epidemic nosocomial infections. In: Bennet JV, Brachman PS, eds. Hospital Infections. 3rd ed. Boston: Little, Brown and Co; 1992. pp. 577-96.
2. Mangram AJ, Horan TC, Pearson ML, Silver LC, Jarvis WR, The Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Guideline for prevention of surgical site infection, 1999. Infec Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1999;20(4):247-280.
3. Centers for Disease Control National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System.
4. No author. Antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgery. Med Letter. Drugs Ther October 29, 2001;(1116):92-97.
5. Dellinger EP, Gross PA, Barrett TL, Krause PJ, Martone WF, McGowan WE, Sweet EL, Wenzel RP. Quality standard for antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgical procedures. Released in 1994 (reviewed 1998). Clin Infect Dis. 1994 Mar:18(3):422-7.
6. Harbath S. Circulation. 2000; 101:2916-21.
7. Latham R, Lancaster AD, Covington JF, Pirolo JS, Thomas CS Jr. The association of diabetes and glucose control with surgical site infections among cardiothoracic surgery patients. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2001;1:22:607-612.
8. Furnary AP, Zerr KJ, Grunkemeier GL, and Starr A. Continuous intravenous insulin infusion reduces the incidence of deep sternal wound infection in diabetic patients after cardiac surgical procedures. Ann Thorac Surg. 1999 67:352-360.
9. Greif R, Akca O, Horn EP, Kruz A, Sessler DI. Supplemental perioperative oxygen to reduce the incidence of wound infection. NEJM. 2000;342(3):161-7.
Harbath S. Circulation. 2000; 101:2916-21.
9. McConkey SJ, L'Ecuyer PB, Murphy DM, Leet TL, Sundt TM, Fraser VJ. Results of a comprehensive infection control program for reducing surgical-site infections in coronary artery bypass surgery. Infec Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1999;20(8):238-247.
10. Richards C, Emori TG, Peavy G, Gayes R. Promoting quality through measurement of performance and response: prevention success stories. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(2):299-301.
"Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases: An Update," by Michelle Gardner, page 34.
1. Lemonick MD. How to keep the doctor away. www.time.com, Jan. 21, 2002 - Jan. 27, 2002. Time.
2. Lemonick MD, Park, A. Vaccines stage a comeback. www.time.com, Jan. 21, 2002 - Jan. 27, 2002. Time.
3. Kluger J. A public mess. www.time.com, Jan. 21, 2002 - Jan. 27, 2002. Time.
4. Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). PAHO regional plan for emerging diseases. June 1995.
5. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). Understanding emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases," http://niaid.nih.gov, not dated.
6. Fidler, DP. The globalization of public health: emerging infectious diseases and international relations. 1997.
7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Preventing emerging infectious diseases: a strategy for the 21st century. 1998.
8. Heymann DL. The urgency of a massive effort against infectious diseases. Presented before the Committee on International Relations U.S. House of Representatives, June 29, 2000.
9. Hughes JM. Emerging infectious and non-infectious disease in the United States. Health seminar series on emerging diseases.
"Managing Infection During Handwashing with a Newly Patented Activated Triclosan Technology," by Thomas L. Kovach, page 38
1. Allawala NA and Riegelman SJ. Journal of American Pharmaceutical Association. 1953, 42, 5, 267-275.
2. Taylor TJ, Seitz EP, Fox PS. US Patent 6 107 261.
3. Test data on file at Hill Top Research Inc. Cincinnati, Ohio. (Study #01-109083-11) (2001) following current revision of ASTM E-1174-00, Standard Test Method for Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Healthcare Personnel or Consumer Handwash Formulations. The study protocol is filed with document control under file number TM&R-0288-01-MRB.
4. Garner JS and Favero MS. CDC guidelines for handwashing and hospital environmental control, 1985. Amer Journ of Infect Con. 1986 June: Volume 14 (3), 110-29.
5. Bryan JL, Cohran J and Larson E., Handwashing: a ritual revisited. Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America. 1995 Dec.: 7: (4) 617-25
6. Doebbeling BN, Stanley GL, Sheetz CT, et al. Comparative efficacy of alternative handwashing agents in reducing nosocomial infections in intensive care units. New Eng Journ of Med. 1992; 327:88-93.
7. Groschel DHM, Pruett TL. Surgical antisepsis. In Block SS. ed. Disinfection, sterilization and preservation. 4th edition. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger, 1991:642-54.
8. Lowbury EJL, Lilly HA, Ayliffe GA J. Preoperative disinfection of surgeons's hands: use of alcoholic solutions and the effects of gloves on skin flora. British Medical Journal. 1974:4:369-72.
9. Eckert DG, Ehrenkranz NJ, Alfonso BC. Indications for alcohol or bland soap in removal of aerobic gram negative bacteria: by a novel method. Infect Cont and Hosp Epidem. 1989; 10:306-11.
10. Larson EL, Morton HE. Alcohols. In Block SS, ed. Disinfection, sterilization and preservation. 4th edition. Philadelphia: Lea & Febringer, 1991:191-203.
11. Larson EL. APIC guideline for handwashing and hand antisepsis in healthcare settings. Amer Journ of Infect Con. 1995 (APIC); 23: 251-269.
13. Paulson D. A comparative evaluation of different hand cleansers. Dairy, Food and Environmental Sanitation. Sept. 1994 Vol. 14, No.9: 524-528.
14. Paulson D. ET. Al. A closer look at alcohol gel as an ant microbial sanitizing agent. American Journal of Infection Control (APIC). August, 1999 Volume 27, No. 4:332-338.
16. Webster J. Handwashing in neonatal intensive care nursery: product acceptability and effectiveness of 4 percent chlorhexidine and triclosan 1 percent. Journal of Hospital Infect. 1992; 21:237-41.
17.Larson EL. APIC guideline for handwashing and hand antisepsis in health care settings. American Journal of Infection Control (APIC). 1995. 23:251-269
Best Practices: TB Prevention and Control in Special Populations, by Pat Tydell, RN. MSN, MPH, page 50
1. US Department of Health and Human Services. (CDC) MMWR. Tuberculosis elimination revisited: obstacles, opportunities, and a renewed commitment. Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET). Aug. 13, 1999. Vol. 48. No. RR-9.
2. National Academies Office of News and Public Information. Tuberculosis: will a global problem become a national threat. www.4.nas.edu/onpi.
3. US Department of Health and Human Services. (CDC) MMWR. Recommendations for prevention and control of tuberculosis among foreign-born persons. Sept. 18, 1998. Vol. 47. No. RR-14.
4. US Department of Justice, Immigration and Naturalization Service. Statistical yearbook of the Immigration and Naturalization Service, 1996. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997.
5. US Census Bureau. The foreign-born population: 1996; P20-494 and PPL-59 (www.census.gov). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Census Bureau, 1998.
6. US Department of Health and Human Services. (CDC) MMWR. Guidelines for preventing the transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in healthcare facilities. Oct. 28, 1994. Vol. 43 No. RR-13.
7. Moore M., et al. Trends in drug-resistant tuberculosis in the United States, 1993-1996. JAMA. 1997; 278:833-
8. US Department of Health and Human Services. (CDC) MMWR. Prevention and control of tuberculosis in facilities providing long-term care to the elderly-recommendations of the advisory committee for elimination of tuberculosis. July 13, 1990 Vol. 39. No. RR-10.
9. US Department of Health and Human Services. (CDC) MMWR. Essential components of tuberculosis prevention and control program-screening for tuberculosis and tuberculosis infection in high-risk populations. Sept. 8, 1995. Vol. 44 No. RR-11.
10. US Department of Health and Human Services. (CDC) MMWR. Prevention and control of tuberculosis in correctional facilities-recommendations of the advisory council for the elimination of tuberculosis. June 7, 1996. Vol. 45 No. RR-8.