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Identifying risk factors predicting acquisition of resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa will aid surveillance and diagnostic initiatives and can be crucial in early and appropriate antibiotic therapy. Raman, et al. (2018) conducted a systematic review examining risk factors of acquisition of resistant P. aeruginosa among hospitalized patients.
MEDLINE®, EMBASE®, and Cochrane Central were searched between 2000 and 2016 for studies examining independent risk factors associated with acquisition of resistant P. aeruginosa, among hospitalized patients. Random effects model meta-analysis was conducted when at least three or more studies were sufficiently similar.
Of the 54 eligible articles, 28 publications (31studies) examined multi-drug resistant (MDR) or extensively drug resistant (XDR) P. aeruginosa and 26 publications (29 studies) examined resistant P. aeruginosa. The acquisition of MDR P. aeruginosa, as compared with non-MDR P. aeruginosa, was significantly associated with intensive care unit (ICU) admission (3 studies: summary adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.2) or use of quinolones (4 studies: summary adjusted OR 3.59). Acquisition of MDR or XDR compared with susceptible P. aeruginosa was significantly associated with prior hospital stay (4 studies: summary adjusted OR 1.90), use of quinolones (3 studies: summary adjusted OR 4.34), or use of carbapenems (3 studies: summary adjusted OR 13.68). The acquisition of MDR P. aeruginosa compared with non-P. aeruginosa was significantly associated with prior use of cephalosporins (3 studies: summary adjusted OR 3.96), quinolones (4 studies: summary adjusted OR 2.96), carbapenems (6 studies: summary adjusted OR 2.61), and prior hospital stay (4 studies: summary adjusted OR 1.74). The acquisition of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa compared with susceptible P. aeruginosa, was statistically significantly associated with prior use of piperacillin-tazobactam (3 studies: summary adjusted OR 2.64), vancomycin (3 studies: summary adjusted OR 1.76), and carbapenems (7 studies: summary adjusted OR 4.36).
The researchers conclude that prior use of antibiotics and prior hospital or ICU stay was the most significant risk factors for acquisition of resistant P. aeruginosa. These findings provide guidance in identifying patients that may be at an elevated risk for a resistant infection and emphasize the importance of antimicrobial stewardship and infection control in hospitals.
Reference: Raman G, et al. Risk Factors for Hospitalized Patients With Resistant or Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Antimicrobial Resistance & Infection Control. 2018;7:79