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Aelami, et al. (2014) provide a review on ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in neonates, infants and children. This review provides an update of VAP incidence rates and summarizes current knowledge on its epidemiology, risk factors, surveillance definitions, and prevention programs in the pediatric setting.
VAP is relatively common in mechanically-ventilated children, but there is a wide variation in reported VAP rates, depending on settings and geographical regions. Surveillance definitions in children are challenging. Although these are provided by the German nosocomial infection surveillance system and an independent Dutch group, the combination of clinical and radiologic signs leaves room for interpretation. Of note, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines do not offer algorithms for neonates. Despite the fact that most experts agree on the low sensitivity and specificity of existing definitions, little has changed over the past years. However, the number of studies reporting on VAP prevention programs has increased in recent years. Single interventions, such as chlorhexidine mouth wash or stress ulcer prophylaxis, were not effective. Successful prevention programs combined multiple interventions, such as hand hygiene, glove and gown use for endotracheal tube manipulation, backrest elevation, oral care with chlorhexidine, stress ulcer prophylaxis, cuff pressure maintenance where appropriate, use of orogastric tubes, avoidance of gastric overdistension, and elimination of non-essential tracheal suction. These multimodal strategies have proved to be successful among neonates, infants and children. Importantly, they are applicable in high- as well as in low- and middle-income countries. This review was published in Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control.
Reference: Aelami MH, Lotfi M and Zingg W. Ventilator-associated pneumonia in neonates, infants and children - a review. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control 2014, 3:30 doi:10.1186/2047-2994-3-30