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Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase producing-Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) bloodstream infection (BSI) are emerging healthcare associated (HCA) diseases of public health concern, in terms of morbidity, mortality, and insufficient response to antibiotic therapy. Both agents can be acquired in the hospital but clinical disease can develop in a community setting, after discharge. Giuliano, et al. (2014) report a putative link between the aforementioned healthcare-associated infections that appeared as a dramatic community onset disease with a fulminant fatal outcome.
The researchers describe the case of a 63-year-old man affected by severe CDI. Even though the patient underwent 72 hours of standard CDI antibiotic treatment, the clinical course was complicated by toxic megacolon and KPC-Kp BSI. The patient died 24 hours after total colectomy.
The researchers say the impact of HCA-BSIs in complicating CDI is still unknown. Intestinal inflammatory injury and disruption of intestinal flora by standard antibiotic treatment could be responsible for promoting difficult-to-treat infections in CDI. By preserving intestinal flora, Fidaxomicin could have a crucial role in preventing BSIs complicating severe CDI. Their research was published in BMC Infectious Diseases.
Reference: Giuliano S, Guastalegname M, Jenco M, Morelli A, Falcone M and Venditti M. Severe community onset healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile infection complicated by carbapenemase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infection. BMC Infectious Diseases 2014, 14:475 doi:10.1186/1471-2334-14-475