Infection Control Today - 06/2004: References

June 1, 2004

IMPROVING INFLUENZA IMMUNIZATION RATES AMONG HEALTHCAREWORKERS: A PUBLIC HEALTH IMPERATIVE, BY JEANNE PFEIFFER, RN, MPH, CIC, ANDBARBARA SOULE, RN, MPA, CIC, PAGE 8.

IMPROVING INFLUENZA IMMUNIZATION RATES AMONG HEALTHCAREWORKERS: A PUBLIC HEALTH IMPERATIVE, BY JEANNE PFEIFFER, RN, MPH, CIC, ANDBARBARA SOULE, RN, MPA, CIC, PAGE 8.

1. CDC. Prevention and control of influenza: Recommendationsof the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice (ACIP). MMWR.2003;52(RR8):1-44.

CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE TOXIN: DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT, ANDPREVENTION OF DISEASE, BY MARCIA HARDICK, RN, BS, CGRN, PAGE 13.

1. Elliot T, Hastings M, and Desselberger U. Lecture notes onmedical microbiology. Third edition. Cambridge, Blackwell Science, 1997.

2. Mandal B, Wilkins E, Dunbar E, and Mayon-White R. LectureNotes on Infectious Diseases. Fifth edition. Cambridge, Blackwell Science, 1996.

3. Ray A. Clostridium difficile infection and concurrentvancomycin-resistant enterococcus stool colonization in a healthcare worker:case report and review of the literature. A Journ Infection Control. 31(1): 54-56, 2003.

4. Fekety R. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management ofclostridium difficile- associated diarrhea and colitis. A Journ ofGastroenterology. 97(5), 739-750, 1997.

5. Klingler P, Metzger P, Seelig M, Pettit P, Knudsen J, andAlvarez S. Clostridium difficile infection: risk factors, medical and surgicalmanagement. Digestive Diseases. 18:146-160, 2000.

6. Miller J, Walton J, and Tordecilla L. Recognizing andmanaging Ccostridium difficile-associated diarrhea. Med Surg Nursing. 7(6): 348,1998.

7. Kyne L, Hamel M, Polavaram R, and Kelly C. Healthcare costsand mortality associated with nosocomial diarrhea due to clostridium difficile.Clinical Infectious Diseases. 34:346-353, 2002.

8. Mayfield J, Leet T, Miller J, and Mundy L. Environmentalcontrol to reduce transmission of clostridium difficile. Clinical InfectiousDiseases. 31:995-1000, 2000.

9. Manian F, Meyer L, and Jenne J. Clostridium difficilecontamination of blood pressure cuffs: A call for a closer look at glovingpractices in the era of universal precautions. Infection Control & HospitalEpidemiology. 17(3): 180-182, 1996.

10. Zafar A, Gaydos L, Furlong W, Nguyen M, and Mennonna P.Effectiveness of infection control program in controlling nosocomial clostridiumdifficile. AJIC. 26(6): 558-593, 1998.

12. Wilcox M, Fawley W, Wigglesworth N, Parnell P, Verity P,and Freeman J. Comparison of the effect of detergent vs. hypochlorite cleaningon environmental contamination and incidence of clostridium difficile infection.J. Hospital Infection. 54: 109-114, 2003.

BIOBURDEN: ERADICATING THE HIDDEN VECTORS, BY BECKI JENSEN,CST, RCST, CRCST, FEL, PAGE 24.

1. Central Restaurant Supply/Storage systems 2. Ninemeier JD.Central Service Technical Manual, Sixth Edition, IAHCSMM, Chicago. 2003.

3. Block S. Disinfection, sterilization and preservation.Fourth Edition.1991.

4. AAMI ST 35/CDV-/2002-01-15

5. OSHA Directives CPL2-2.44D-Enforcement procedures for the occupational exposure to bloodbornepathogens. Effective: Nov. 5, 1999.

6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HealthcareInfection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Draft guideline forenvironmental infection control for healthcare facilities. 2001.

CLINICAL REQUIREMENTS OF BODY-WORN HAND SANITATION:ACCESSIBILITY IS THE KEY TO HAND HYGIENE COMPLIANCE, BY RON CAGLE, PAGE 30.

1. Boyce JM, Pittet D. Guidelines for hand hygiene inhealthcare settings, CDC Oct. 25, 2002 /51(RR16);1-44.

2. Pittet D. Improving compliance with hand hygiene.Prevention and control of nosocomial infections. Fourth edition, pp. 524-541.

3. Bischoff WE, Reynolds TM, Sessler CN, Edmond MB, Wenzel RP.Handwashing compliance by healthcare workers. The impact of introducing anaccessible, alcohol-based hand antiseptic. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160:101721.

4. Pittet D. Compliance with hand disinfection and its impacton nosocomial infections. J Hosp Infect. 2001;28(Suppl A):S40-S46

ARE YOUPREPARED FOR A MASS-CONTAMINATION EVENT AT YOUR FACILITY? BY BY LORI HAGEN, CPHQ, PAGE 38.

1. 2004 Comprehensive Accreditation Manual for Hospitals

2. VHA Directive 2003-045: Mass Casualty Decontamination

ASEPTICTECHNIQUE: BEST PRACTICES IN REAL LIFE, BY KATHY DIX, PAGE 44.

1. www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000666.htm

2.www.sepsisforum.org/PDF%20files/understanding%20sepsis%20web%20version%20July%202002.pdf

3.www.engenderhealth.org/ip/aseptic/atm2.html

NEWGUIDELINES AIM TO DECREASE SEPSIS-RELATED MORTALITY, BY KELLY M. PYREK, PAGE 50.

1. Dellinger RP, et al. Surviving sepsis campaign guidelinesfor management of severe sepsis and septic shock. Crit Care Med. 2004, Vol. 32,No. 3, pp. 858-873.

2. Levy MM, et al. 2001 SCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS internationalsepsis definitions conference. Crit Care Med. 2003, Vol. 31, No. 4, pp.1250-1256.

HANDLE WITH CARE: CLEANING AND DISINFECTING RIGID AND FLEXIBLESCOPES, BY JOHN ROARK, PAGE 62.

1. Recommended practices for cleaning and processingendoscopes and endoscope accessories. AORN Journal, Feb, 2003.

ACUTE VIRAL HEPATITIS: A PROBLEM PATHOGEN FOR HEALTHCAREPROFESSIONALS, BY CAROLYN L. TWOMEY, RN, BSN, PAGE 54.

1. World Health Organization. Healthcare worker safety.Aide-Memoire for a strategy to protect health workers from infection withblood-borne viruses. WHO/BCT/03.11. Accessed at:
http://www.who.int/injection_safety/toolbox/en/AM_HCW_Safety_EN.pdfon February 9, 2004.

2. Fry DE. The ABCs of Hepatitis. Chapter 19. Advances inSurgery. Volume 33, 1999, Mosby, Inc.

3. Ibid.

4. Ibid.

5. Acute Viral Hepatitis. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis andTherapy. Section 4. Chapter 42. Accessed at
http://www.merck.com/mrkshared/mmanual/section4/chapter42/42b.jsp on January 26,2004.

6. Hepatitis and Related Diseases. Regional Office for theWestern Pacific, Fiftieth session, Macao. World Health Organization. 13-17 September 1999.

7. Ibid.

8. Fry DE. The ABCs of Hepatitis. Chapter 19. Advances inSurgery. Volume 33, 1999, Mosby, Inc.

9. Hepatitis A. WHO Department of Communicable DiseaseSurveillance and Response. World Health Organization. Accessed at: http://www.who.int/emcdocuments.hepatitis/docs/whocdscsredc2007.html/virus/stability.html onJanuary 26, 2004.

10. Stapleton JT. Host immune response to hepatitis A virus.Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1995, 171 (Suppl 1):S9-S14 11. Hepatitis A.American Medical Association. Accessed at: http://www.amaassn.

org/ama/pub/category/2347.html on January 26, 2004.

12. Ahluwalia JPS, Graber MA, Silverman WB. Gastroenterologyand Hepatology: Viral Hepatitis. University of Iowa Family Practice Handbook, Fourth Edition,Chapter 5. Accessed at:
http://www.vh.org/adult/provider/familymedicine/FPHandbook/Chapter05/17-5.htmlon January 26, 2004.

13. Hepatitis A. WHO Department of Communicable DiseaseSurveillance and Response. World Health Organization. Accessed at: http://www.who.int/emcdocuments.hepatitis/docs/whocdscsredc2007.html/disease/prevalence.hrmlon January 26, 2004.

14. Hepatitis A. World Health Organization Department ofCommunicable Disease Surveillance and Response. Accessed at:http://www.who.int/emcdocuments/hepatitis/docs/whocdscsredc2007.html/disease/risks_groups.htm on January 26,2004.

15. Acute Viral Hepatitis. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis andTherapy. Section 4. Chapter 42. Accessed at
http://www.merck.com/mrkshared/mmanual/section4/chapter42/42b.jsp on January 26,2004.

16. Fry DE. The ABCs of Hepatitis. Chapter 19. Advances inSurgery. Volume 33, 1999, Mosby, Inc.

17. Hepatitis A. WHO Department of Communicable DiseaseSurveillance and Response. World Health Organization. Accessed at:http://www.who.int/emcdocuments/hepatitis/docs/whocdscsredc2007.html/disease/the_disease.html on January 26,2004.

18. Ibid.

19. Hepatitis A. WHO Department of Communicable DiseaseSurveillance and Response. World Health Organization. Accessed at:http://www.who.int/emcdocuments/hepatitis/docs/whocdscsredc2007.html/disease/the_disease.html on January 26,2004.

20. Hepatitis A. WHO Department of Communicable DiseaseSurveillance and Response. World Health Organization. Accessed at: http://www.who.int/emcdocuments.hepatitis/docs/whocdscsredc2007.html/disease/transmission.hrmlon January 26, 2004.

21. Hepatitis A. WHO Department of Communicable DiseaseSurveillance and Response. World Health Organization. Accessed at:http://www.who.int/emcdocuments/hepatitis/docs/whocdscsredc2007.html/disease/the_disease.html on January 26,2004.

22. Ibid.

23. Fry DE. The ABCs of Hepatitis. Chapter 19. Advances inSurgery. Volume 33, 1999, Mosby, Inc.

24. Hepatitis A. American Medical Association. Accessed at:
http://www.amaassn.org/ama/pub/category/2347.html on January 26, 2004.

25. Ibid.

26. Ahluwalia JPS, Graber MA, Silverman WB. Gastroenterologyand Hepatology: Viral Hepatitis. University of Iowa Family Practice Handbook, Fourth Edition,Chapter 5. Accessed at:
http://www.vh.org/adult/provider/familymedicine/FPHandbook/Chapter05/17-5.htmlon January 26, 2004.

27. Fry DE. The ABCs of Hepatitis. Chapter 19. Advances inSurgery. Volume 33, 1999, Mosby, Inc.

28. Hepatitis B. World Health Organization. Department ofCommunicable Diseases Surveillance and Response.WHO/CDS/CSR/LYO/2002.2:Hepatitis B. Accessed at http://www.who.int/emc onJanuary 26, 2004.

29. Fry DE. The ABCs of Hepatitis. Chapter 19. Advances inSurgery. Volume 33, 1999, Mosby, Inc.

30. Ibid.

31. Hepatitis B. WHO Department of Communicable DiseaseSurveillance and Response. World Health Organization. Accessed at:http://www.who.int/emcdocuments/hepatitis/docs/whocdscsrlyo20022/disease/transmission.html on January 26, 200432. Hepatitis B. WHO Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance andResponse. World Health Organization. Accessed at:
http://www.who.int/emcdocuments/hepatitis/docs/whocdscsrlyo20022/disease/prevalence.html on January 26, 2004.

33. Ibid.

34. Ibid.

35. Hepatitis B. WHO Department of Communicable DiseaseSurveillance and Response. World Health Organization. Accessed at:http://www.who.int/emcdocuments/hepatitis/docs/whocdscsrlyo20022/disease/stability.html on January 26, 2004 36.Hepatitis B. WHO Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response.World Health Organization. Accessed at:
http://www.who.int/emcdocuments/hepatitis/docs/whocdscsrlyo20022/disease/transmission.html on January 26, 200437. Hepatitis B. WHO Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance andResponse. World Health Organization. Accessed at:
http://www.who.int/emcdocuments/hepatitis/docs/whocdscsrlyo20022/disease/risk_groups.html on January 26, 200438. Fry DE. The ABCs of Hepatitis. Chapter 19. Advances in Surgery. Volume33, 1999, Mosby, Inc.

39. Hepatitis B. WHO Department of Communicable DiseaseSurveillance and Response. World Health Organization. Accessed at:http://www.who.int/emcdocuments/hepatitis/docs/whocdscsrlyo20022/disease/clinical_phases.html on January 26, 20040. Hepatitis B. WHO Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance andResponse. World Health Organization. Accessed at:
http://www.who.int/emcdocuments/hepatitis/docs/whocdscsrlyo20022/disease/progression.html on January 26, 2004.

41. Hepatitis B. WHO Department of Communicable DiseaseSurveillance and Response. World Health Organization. Accessed at:http://www.who.int/emcdocuments/hepatitis/docs/whocdscsrlyo20022/disease/bclinical_features.html on January 26,2004.

42. Hepatitis B. WHO Department of Communicable DiseaseSurveillance and Response. World Health Organization. Accessed at:http://www.who.int/emcdocuments/hepatitis/docs/whocdscsrlyo20022/disease/surveillance/vaccine.html  on January26, 2004.

43. Fry DE. The ABCs of Hepatitis. Chapter 19. Advances inSurgery. Volume 33, 1999, Mosby, Inc.

44. Ibid.

45. Ibid.

46. Ibid.

47. NIH Consensus Statement on Management of Hepatitis C:2002.NIH Consensus and State-of-the- Science Statements;Vol 19, No 3, June 10-12,2002. National Institutes of Health. Office of the Director. Accessed at :http://consensus.nih.gov on January 26, 2004.

48. Ibid.

49. Ibid.

50. Fry DE. The ABCs of Hepatitis. Chapter 19. Advances inSurgery. Volume 33, 1999, Mosby, Inc.

51. Fong TL, Schoenfield LJ. Hepatitis C. MedicineNet.Accessed at:
http://www.medcinenet.com/Hepatitis_c/article.htm on January26, 2004.

52. Ahluwalia JPS, Graber MA, Silverman WB. Gastroenterologyand Hepatology: Viral Hepatitis. University of Iowa Family Practice Handbook, Fourth Edition,Chapter 5. Accessed at:
http://www.vh.org/adult/provider/familymedicine/FPHandbook/Chapter05/17-5.html on January 26, 2004.

53. NIH Consensus Statement on Management of Hepatitis C:2002.NIH Consensus and State-of-the- Science Statements;Vol 19, No 3, June 10-12,2002. National Institutes of Health. Office of the Director. Accessed at :http://consensus.nih.gov on January 26, 2004.

54. Ibid.

55. Fong TL, Schoenfield LJ. Hepatitis C. MedicineNet.Accessed at:
http://www.medcinenet.com/Hepatitis_c/article.htm on January26, 2004. Acute Viral Hepatitis. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis andTherapy. Section 4. Chapter 42. Accessed at
http://www.merck.com/mrkshared/mmanual/section4/chapter42/42b.jsp on January 26,2004.

56. Ahluwalia JPS, Graber MA, Silverman WB. Gastroenterologyand Hepatology: Viral Hepatitis.

University of Iowa Family Practice Handbook, Fourth Edition,Chapter 5. Accessed at:
http://www.vh.org/adult/provider/familymedicine/FPHandbook/Chapter05/17-5.htmlon January 26, 2004.

57. Fong TL, Schoenfield LJ. Hepatitis C. MedicineNet.Accessed at:
http://www.medcinenet.com/Hepatitis_c/article.htm on January26, 2004.

58. NIH Consensus Statement on Management of Hepatitis C:2002.NIH Consensus and State-of-the- Science Statements;Vol 19, No 3, June 10-12,2002. National Institutes of Health. Office of the Director. Accessed at :http://consensus.nih.gov on January 26, 2004.

59. Ibid.

60. Fry DE. The ABCs of Hepatitis. Chapter 19. Advances inSurgery. Volume 33, 1999, Mosby, Inc.

61. Fong TL, Schoenfield LJ. Hepatitis C. MedicineNet.Accessed at:
http://www.medcinenet.com/Hepatitis_c/article.htm on January26, 2004.

62. Ahluwalia JPS, Graber MA, Silverman WB. Gastroenterologyand Hepatology: Viral Hepatitis. University of Iowa Family Practice Handbook, Fourth Edition,Chapter 5. Accessed at:
http://www.vh.org/adult/provider/familymedicine/FPHandbook/Chapter05/17-5.htmlon January 26, 2004.

63. Fong TL, Schoenfield LJ. Hepatitis C. MedicineNet.Accessed at:
http://www.medcinenet.com/Hepatitis_c/article.htm on January26, 2004.

64. World Health Organization. Hepatitis C Fact Sheet No. 164.Revised October 2000. Accessed at:
http://www.who.int/inf-fs/en/fact164.html on February 2, 2004.

65. Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board. Global surveillance andcontrol of hepatitis C. Journal of Viral Hepatitis 1999;6:35-47.

66. Ibid.

67. Fry DE. The ABCs of Hepatitis. Chapter 19. Advances inSurgery. Volume 33, 1999, Mosby, Inc.

68. Ibid.

69. Ibid.

70. Ibid.

71. Ibid.

72. Acute Viral Hepatitis. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis andTherapy. Section 4. Chapter 42. Accessed at
http://www.merck.com/mrkshared/mmanual/section4/chapter42/42b.jsp on January 26,2004.

73. Fry DE. The ABCs of Hepatitis. Chapter 19. Advances inSurgery. Volume 33, 1999, Mosby, Inc.

74. Acute Viral Hepatitis. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis andTherapy. Section 4. Chapter 42. Accessed athttp://www.merck.com/mrkshared/mmanual/section4/chapter42/42b.jsp on January 26,2004.

75. Ahluwalia JPS, Graber MA, Silverman WB. Gastroenterologyand Hepatology: Viral Hepatitis. University of Iowa Family Practice Handbook, Fourth Edition,Chapter 5. Accessed at:
http://www.vh.org/adult/provider/familymedicine/FPHandbook/Chapter05/17-5.htmlon January 26, 2004.

76. Hepatitis B. Coinfection or Superinfection with HDV. WHODepartment of Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response. World HealthOrganization. Accessed at:
http://www.who.int/emcdocuments/hepatitis/docs/whocdscsrlyo20022/disease/coinfection.html on January 26, 2004.

78. Fry DE. The ABCs of Hepatitis. Chapter 19. Advances inSurgery. Volume 33, 1999, Mosby, Inc.

79. Hepatitis E. World Health Organization. Department ofCommunicable Disease Surveillance and Response. WHO/CDS/CSR/EDC/2001.12.Accessed at: http://www.who.int.emc on January 26, 2004.

80. Bisceglie AM. Hepatitis G Virus Infection, A work inProgress. Annals of Internal Medicine 1996;125(9):772-773.

81. Ibid.

82. Tanaka E, Alter HJ, Nakatsuji Y. Effect of Hepatitis GVirus Infection on Chronic Hepatitis C. Annals of Internal Medicine 1996;125:740-743.

83. Ibid.

84. Fry DE. The ABCs of Hepatitis. Chapter 19. Advances inSurgery. Volume 33, 1999, Mosby, Inc.

85. Ibid.

86. Ibid.

87. Ibid.

88. Ibid.

89. Acute Viral Hepatitis. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis andTherapy. Section 4. Chapter 42. Accessed at
http://www.merck.com/mrkshared/mmanual/section4/chapter42/42b.jsp on January 26, 2004.

90. Ahluwalia JPS, Graber MA, Silverman WB. Gastroenterologyand Hepatology: Viral Hepatitis. University of Iowa Family Practice Handbook, Fourth Edition,Chapter 5. Accessed at:
http://www.vh.org/adult/provider/familymedicine/FPHandbook/Chapter05/17-5.htmlon January 26, 2004.

91. NIH Consensus Statement on Management of Hepatitis C:2002.NIH Consensus and State-of-the-Science Statements;Vol 19, No 3, June 10-12, 2002. NationalInstitutes of Health. Office of the Director. Accessed at : http://consensus.nih.gov on January26, 2004.

92. Rabussay DP, Korniewicz DM. Improving glove barriereffectiveness. AORN J 1997;66(6):1043-1046, 1049-1054, 1057-1060.

93. Duron JJ, Keilani K, Wilan NG. Efficacy of double glovingwith a colored inner pair for immediate detection of operative glove perforations. Eur J Surg1996;162:941-944.

94. Nicolai P, Aldam CH, Allen PW. Increased awareness ofglove perforation in major joint replacement. J Bone Joint

STERILE PROCESSING TRAINING: REMEMBER THE TURTLE ... NOT THEHARE, BY NANCY CHOBIN, RN, AAS, CSPDT, CSPDS, CSIT, CSPDM, PAGE 74.

1. Philips L. The Continuing Education Guide. 1994.

2. Chobin N. The Real Costs for Surgical Instrument Trainingin Central Service. Surgical Services Management. August, 1998.

3. Odiore GS. Personnel Policy: Issues and Practices.Columbus, Ohio.