Study to Explore Impact of Antibiotic Use on Acquisition, Selection and Transmission of MRSA

The risk of acquisition of antibiotic resistant-bacteria during or shortly after antibiotic therapy is still unclear and it is often confounded by scarce data on antibiotic usage. The primary objective of a study by Giulia De Angelis and colleagues is to compare rates of acquisition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in hospitalized patients, after starting antibiotic therapy.
The study, running in three European hospitals, is a multicenter, prospective, longitudinal, observational cohort study funded from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme [FP7/2007-2013] within the project 'Impact of Specific Antibiotic Therapies on the prevalence of hUman host ResistaNt bacteria' (acronym SATURN). Nasal and rectal screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and extended spectrum beta-lactamases-producing Enterobacteriaceae will be obtained at hospital admission, discharge, at antibiotic start (t0, within one hour) and at the following intervals: day 3 (t1), 7 (t2), 15 (t3), and 30 (t4).

Two nested case-control studies will be performed. The objective of the first study will be to define individual level of risk related to specific antibiotics. Patients acquiring methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (cases) will be compared with patients not acquiring antibiotic-resistant strains after starting antibiotic therapy (controls; ratio 1:4). To define the impact of antibiotics on new acquisition of target antibiotic-resistant bacteria, a second nested case-control study will be done (ratio 1:4). Control group will be selected among patients not receiving antibiotics, admitted in the same ward on the day of the corresponding case, with negative cultures at admission.

Epidemiological, clinical and microbiological data will be prospectively collected. The rationale of this study is to better understand the impact of antibiotic use on acquisition, selection and transmission of antimicrobial resistant-bacteria in European hospitals.

Reference: De Angelis G, et al. Nosocomial acquisition of methicillin-resistant Staphyloccocus aureus (MRSA) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) Enterobacteriaceae in hospitalised patients: a prospective multicenter study. BMC Infectious Diseases 2012, 12:74 doi:10.1186/1471-2334-12-74