Infection Control Today


JULY 2000

Handwashing Protocol

Fukada T, Tachibana C, Tsukazaki Y, Satoh K, Ohe Y, Kawamata M. Importance of instructing anesthesiologists in handwashing against bacterial contamination.

Japanense J Anesthesiology

. 1997;46(4):552-555.

Chamberlain AN, Halablab MA, Gould DJ, Miles RJ. Distribution of bacteria on hands and the effectiveness of brief and thorough decontamination procedures using non-medicated soap. Int J Med Microbiol Virol Parasitol and Infect Dis. 1997;285(4):565-575.

Patrick DR, Findon G, Miller TE. Residual moisture determines the level of touch-contact-associated bacterial transfer following handwashing. Epidemiol Infect. 1997;119:319-325.

Sattar, Springthorpe. Unpublished.

Patrick DR, Findon G, Miller TE. Residual moisture determines the level of touch-contact-associated bacterial transfer following handwashing. Epidemiol Infect. 1997;119:319-325.

Ly VT, Simmons PA, Edrington TB, Wechsler S, De LP. Efficacy of handwashing procedures on bacterial contamination of hydrogel contact lenses. Optometry & Vision Sci. 1997;74(5):288-292.

Boyce JM, Potterbynoe G, Chenevert C, King T. Environmental contamination due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus--possible infection implications. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1997;18(9):622-627.

How Can VRE Infections Be Prevented in Surgery? by Pamela S. Falk, MPH

1. LeClercq R, Derlot E, Duval J, Courvalin P. Plasmid-mediated resistance to vancomycin and teicoplanin in Enterococcus faecium. N Engl J Med. 1988;319:157-161.

2. Uttley AHC, Collins CH, Naidoo J, George RC. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Lancet. 1988;1:57-58.

3. Frieden TR, Munsiff SS, Low DE, Willey BM, Williams G, Faur Y, Emergence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in New York City. Lancet. 1993;342:76-79.

4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Nosocomial enterococci resistant to vancomycin-United States, 1989-1993. MMWR. 1993;42:597-599.

5. Tornieporth NG, Roberts RB, John J, Hafnier A, Riley LW. Risk factors associated with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium infection or colonization in 145 matched case patients and control patients. Clin Infect Dis. 1996;23:767-772.

6. Morris Jr JG, Shay DK, Hebden JN, McCarter RJ Jr, Perdue BE, Jarvis W, Enterococci resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents, including vancomycin. Establishment of endemicity in a university medical center. Ann Intern Med. 1995;123:250-259.

7. Slaughter S, Hayden MK, Nathan C, Hu T-C, rice T, van Voorhis J. et. al. A comparison of the effect of universal use of gloves and gowns with that of glove use alone on acquisition of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in a medical intensive care unit. Ann Intern Med. 1996;125:448-456.

8. Falk, PS, Winnike J, Woodmansee C, Desai M, Mayhall CG. Outbreak due to vancomycin-resistant enterococci in a burn unit. Submitted for publication.

9. Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Recommendations for preventing the spread of vancomycin resistance. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1995;16:105-133.

Technological Advances in Lighting and Booms for the OR: Impact on Infection Control and OR Efficiency by Annette C. Johnson, RN, BSN, CNOR

1. Meeker M, Rothrock J. Alexanders Care of the Patient in Surgery. St. Louis, Mo: Mosby; 1995:35-45.

2. Recommended practices for traffic patterns in the perioperative practice setting. In: AORN Standards, Recommended Practices, and Guidelines. Denver, Co: Association of Operating Room Nurses, Inc.; 1999.

3. Popolow G. How robotics is transforming the OR. Surg Serv Manage. December 1999;5:35-39.

4. Turley JP. Ubiquitous computing, virtual reality, and augmented reality. In: Ball MJ, et al, eds. Nursing Infomatics: Where Caring and Technology Meet. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag; 1995:320-330.

5. Pryor F, Messmer P. The effect of traffic patterns in the OR on surgical suite infections. AORN J. October 1998;68(4):649-659.

6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Department of Health and Human Services National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Control of smoke from laser/electric surgical procedures. NIOSH Hazard Controls Document. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, September 1996.

7. AORN Online, Government Affairs. Accessed April 2000. <>.

Safe Patient Care by Pat Tydell, RN, MSN, MPH

1. Joint Commission. Sentinel Events: Evaluation, Cause and Planning Improvement. Oakbrook Terrace, IL. The Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Health Care Organizations. 1998.

2. Joint Commission. Conducting A Root Cause Analysis in Response to a Sentinel Event. Oakbrook Terrace, IL. Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Health Care Organizations. 1996.

3. Joint Commission. Sentinel Events in the Age of Performance Improvement. 6th Edition. Oakbrook Terrace, IL. Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Health Care Organizations. 1998.

4. Billings CE, Reynard WD. Human factors in aircraft incidents: results of a 7-year study. Aerospace Medicine Association. Washington, D.C., October, 1984.

5. Berwick D. Taking action to improve safety: how to increase the odds of success. Conference-Enhancing Patient Safety and Reducing Errors in Health Care. November, 1998.

6. Leape LL. Error in medicine. JAMA. December 1994; 272(23).

Asepsis and Aseptic Practices in the Operating Room by Cathy Osman, RN, BSN, CNOR

Meeker MH, Rothrock JC. Alexanders Care of the Patient in Surgery. 10th ed. Mosby; 1995.

AORN. Standards, Recommendations, and Guidelines. 2000.

Fortunato NH. Berry & Kohns Operating Room Technique. 9th ed. Mosby; 2000.

Fairchild S. Perioperative Nursing-Principles and Practice. 2nd Ed. Little Brown and Co; 1993.

Gruendemann BJ, Fernsebner B. ComprehensivePerioperative Nursing, Vol. 1, Principles. Jones and Bartlett; 1995.

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